TU Darmstadt / ULB / TUbiblio

The Use of Games and Crowdsourcing for the Fabrication-aware Design of Residential Buildings

Savov, Anton (2022)
The Use of Games and Crowdsourcing for the Fabrication-aware Design of Residential Buildings.
Technische Universität Darmstadt
doi: 10.26083/tuprints-00020697
Ph.D. Thesis, Primary publication, Publisher's Version

Abstract

State-of-the-art participatory design acknowledges the true, ill-defined nature of design problems, taking into account stakeholders' values and preferences. However, it overburdens the architect, who has to synthesize far more constraints into a one-of-a-kind design. Generative Design promises to equip architects with great power to standardize and systemize the design process. However, the common trap of generative design is trying to treat architecture simply as a tame problem. In this work, I investigate the use of games and crowdsourcing in architecture through two sets of explorative questions. First, if everyone can participate in the network-enabled creation of the built environment, what role will they play? And what tools will they need to enable them? And second, if anyone can use digital fabrication to build any building, how will we design it? What design paradigms will govern this process? I present a map of design paradigms that lie at the intersections of Participatory Design, Generative Design, Game Design, and Crowd Wisdom. In four case studies, I explore techniques to employ the practices from the four fields in the service of architecture. Generative Design can lower the difficulty of the challenge to design by automating a large portion of the work. A newly formulated, unified taxonomy of generative design across the disciplines of architecture, computer science, and computer games builds the base for the use of algorithms in the case studies. The work introduces Playable Voxel-Shape Grammars, a new type of generative technique. It enables Game Design to guide participants through a series of challenges, effectively increasing their skills by helping them understand the underlying principles of the design task at hand. The use of crowdsourcing in architecture can mean thousands of architects creating content for a generative design system, to expand and open up its design space. Crowdsourcing can also be about millions of people online creating designs that an architect or a homeowner can refer to increase their understanding of the complex issues at hand in a given design project and for better decision making. At the same time, game design in architecture helps find the balance between algorithmically exploring pre-defined design alternatives and open-ended, free creativity. The research reveals a layered structure of entry points for crowd-contributed content as well as the granular nature of authorship among four different roles: non-expert stakeholders, architects, the crowd, and the tool-makers.

Item Type: Ph.D. Thesis
Erschienen: 2022
Creators: Savov, Anton
Type of entry: Primary publication
Title: The Use of Games and Crowdsourcing for the Fabrication-aware Design of Residential Buildings
Language: English
Referees: Tessmann, Prof. Dr. Oliver ; Knöll, Prof. Dr. Martin
Date: 2022
Place of Publication: Darmstadt
Collation: xii, 443 Seiten
Refereed: 29 November 2021
DOI: 10.26083/tuprints-00020697
URL / URN: https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/20697
Abstract:

State-of-the-art participatory design acknowledges the true, ill-defined nature of design problems, taking into account stakeholders' values and preferences. However, it overburdens the architect, who has to synthesize far more constraints into a one-of-a-kind design. Generative Design promises to equip architects with great power to standardize and systemize the design process. However, the common trap of generative design is trying to treat architecture simply as a tame problem. In this work, I investigate the use of games and crowdsourcing in architecture through two sets of explorative questions. First, if everyone can participate in the network-enabled creation of the built environment, what role will they play? And what tools will they need to enable them? And second, if anyone can use digital fabrication to build any building, how will we design it? What design paradigms will govern this process? I present a map of design paradigms that lie at the intersections of Participatory Design, Generative Design, Game Design, and Crowd Wisdom. In four case studies, I explore techniques to employ the practices from the four fields in the service of architecture. Generative Design can lower the difficulty of the challenge to design by automating a large portion of the work. A newly formulated, unified taxonomy of generative design across the disciplines of architecture, computer science, and computer games builds the base for the use of algorithms in the case studies. The work introduces Playable Voxel-Shape Grammars, a new type of generative technique. It enables Game Design to guide participants through a series of challenges, effectively increasing their skills by helping them understand the underlying principles of the design task at hand. The use of crowdsourcing in architecture can mean thousands of architects creating content for a generative design system, to expand and open up its design space. Crowdsourcing can also be about millions of people online creating designs that an architect or a homeowner can refer to increase their understanding of the complex issues at hand in a given design project and for better decision making. At the same time, game design in architecture helps find the balance between algorithmically exploring pre-defined design alternatives and open-ended, free creativity. The research reveals a layered structure of entry points for crowd-contributed content as well as the granular nature of authorship among four different roles: non-expert stakeholders, architects, the crowd, and the tool-makers.

Alternative Abstract:
Alternative abstract Language

Partizipatives Design auf dem neuesten Stand der Technik erkennt die tatsächliche, nicht klar definierte Natur von Designproblemen an und berücksichtigt die Werte und Präferenzen der Beteiligten. Allerdings ist der Architekt damit überfordert, da er weitaus mehr Vorgaben zu einem einzigartigen Entwurf zusammenfassen muss. Generatives Design verspricht, Architekten mit großer Macht auszustatten, um den Entwurfsprozess zu standardisieren und zu systematisieren. Die häufige Falle des generativen Designs ist jedoch der Versuch, Architektur einfach als ein zahmes Problem zu behandeln. In dieser Arbeit untersuche ich den Einsatz von Spielen und Crowdsourcing in der Architektur anhand von zwei Gruppen von Forschungsfragen. Erstens: Wenn jeder an der netzgestützten Gestaltung der gebauten Umwelt teilnehmen kann, welche Rolle wird er dann spielen? Und welche Werkzeuge werden sie benötigen, um sie zu befähigen? Und zweitens, wenn jeder mit Hilfe der digitalen Fabrikation jedes beliebige Gebäude bauen kann, wie werden wir es dann gestalten? Welche Entwurfsparadigmen werden diesen Prozess bestimmen? Ich präsentiere eine Karte von Designparadigmen, die an den Schnittstellen von Participatory Design, Generative Design, Game Design und Crowd Wisdom liegen. In vier Fallstudien untersuche ich Techniken, um die Praktiken aus den vier Bereichen im Rahmen der Architektur zu nutzen. Generatives Design kann den Schwierigkeitsgrad der Designherausforderung senken, indem ein großer Teil der Arbeit automatisiert wird. Eine neu formulierte, einheitliche Taxonomie des generativen Designs in den Disziplinen Architektur, Informatik und Computerspiele bildet die Grundlage für den Einsatz von Algorithmen in den Fallstudien. Die Arbeit stellt Playable Voxel-Shape Grammars vor, eine neue Art von generativer Technik. Sie ermöglicht es Game Design, die Teilnehmer durch eine Reihe von Herausforderungen zu führen und ihre Fähigkeiten effektiv zu verbessern, indem sie ihnen hilft, die zugrunde liegenden Prinzipien der jeweiligen Designaufgabe zu verstehen. Der Einsatz von Crowdsourcing in der Architektur kann bedeuten, dass Tausende von Architekten Inhalte für ein generatives Entwurfssystem erstellen, um dessen Entwurfsraum zu erweitern und zu öffnen. Crowdsourcing kann auch bedeuten, dass Millionen von Menschen online Entwürfe erstellen, die ein Architekt oder ein Hausbesitzer heranziehen kann, um die komplexen Probleme eines bestimmten Entwurfsprojekts besser zu verstehen und eine bessere Entscheidungsfindung zu ermöglichen. Gleichzeitig hilft das Game Design in der Architektur dabei, ein Gleichgewicht zwischen der algorithmischen Erkundung vordefinierter Entwurfsalternativen und offener, freier Kreativität zu finden. Die Untersuchung zeigt eine mehrschichtige Struktur von Einstiegspunkten für von der Crowd erstellte Inhalte sowie die granulare Natur der Autorenschaft zwischen vier verschiedenen Rollen: nicht fachkundige Interessenvertreter, Architekten, die Crowd und die Tool-Macher.

German
Status: Publisher's Version
URN: urn:nbn:de:tuda-tuprints-206970
Classification DDC: 700 Arts and recreation > 720 Architecture
Divisions: 15 Department of Architecture
15 Department of Architecture > Fachgruppe B: Gestalten und Darstellen
15 Department of Architecture > Fachgruppe B: Gestalten und Darstellen > Digital Design
Date Deposited: 02 Mar 2022 09:21
Last Modified: 03 Mar 2022 07:28
PPN:
Referees: Tessmann, Prof. Dr. Oliver ; Knöll, Prof. Dr. Martin
Refereed / Verteidigung / mdl. Prüfung: 29 November 2021
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