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AI-In-Orbit-Factory - AI approaches for adaptive robotic in-orbit manufacturing of modular satellites

Kempf, Florian ; Mühlbauer, Maximilian Sebastian ; Dasbach, Thomas ; Leutert, Florian ; Hulin, Thomas ; Balachandran, Ribin Radhakrishna ; Wende, Martin ; Anderl, Reiner ; Schilling, Klaus ; Albu-Schäffer, Alin Olimpiu (2021)
AI-In-Orbit-Factory - AI approaches for adaptive robotic in-orbit manufacturing of modular satellites.
International Astronautical Congress (IAC). (25.-29. Okt. 2021)
Conference or Workshop Item, Bibliographie

Abstract

Ongoing advances in modular satellite architectures, coupled with improvements in adaptive manufacturing processes are paving the way for innovations in manufacturing in space and, beyond that, even on-orbit servicing. Current challenges for in-orbit manufacturing of satellites include, in particular, highly reliable, precise and adaptive manufacturing and inspection processes, teleoperation methods to resolve unexpected problems from Earth, and means for a digital representation of all relevant activities and conditions to maintain full control. Each challenge is addressed in the project AI-In-Orbit-Factory with various of AI methods. For the necessary digital representation of the in-orbit factory and all ongoing processes a knowledge-based approach and digital-twin methodology is used, which enables adaptive, flexible and understandable manufacturing processes. Especially the complex information flow between different manufacturing machines, digital process twins that orchestrate the production process and digital twins of satellites in production can be described. Furthermore, conflicts and possible error sources can be identified through inference. Utilizing the aforementioned knowledge base and standardized modular components the composition of a mission specific satellite is automatically planned based on the desired mission requirements. With the help of a robotic manipulator each module is optically inspected for production errors using a high-resolution camera and reference images, before they are integrated into the satellite structure. Once integrated, the submodules undergo optimized testing and anomaly detection routines with learned nominal subsystem behaviour models as input. Additionally, each manipulation step is supervised using force-feedback and vision-based anomaly detectors. For cases where automated assembly fails, a bilateral teleoperation system with force feedback is developed. In order to increase precision during teleoperated assembly and reduce mental and physical load, the human operator is assisted by adaptive virtual fixtures (haptic constraints). Adaptive fixtures are learned from both demonstration and simulation and parametrized depending on the manipulation phase, providing coarse to fine-grained support throughout approaching, positioning and haptic manipulation phases. An arbitration component detects the current manipulation phase to select the appropriate supporting fixture and ensure smooth transitions. This paper outlines the AI methods and our approach to reliable and adaptive in-orbit manufacturing and presents first results.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Erschienen: 2021
Creators: Kempf, Florian ; Mühlbauer, Maximilian Sebastian ; Dasbach, Thomas ; Leutert, Florian ; Hulin, Thomas ; Balachandran, Ribin Radhakrishna ; Wende, Martin ; Anderl, Reiner ; Schilling, Klaus ; Albu-Schäffer, Alin Olimpiu
Type of entry: Bibliographie
Title: AI-In-Orbit-Factory - AI approaches for adaptive robotic in-orbit manufacturing of modular satellites
Language: German
Date: 25 October 2021
Place of Publication: Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Book Title: Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC
Event Title: International Astronautical Congress (IAC)
Event Dates: 25.-29. Okt. 2021
URL / URN: https://elib.dlr.de/144939/
Abstract:

Ongoing advances in modular satellite architectures, coupled with improvements in adaptive manufacturing processes are paving the way for innovations in manufacturing in space and, beyond that, even on-orbit servicing. Current challenges for in-orbit manufacturing of satellites include, in particular, highly reliable, precise and adaptive manufacturing and inspection processes, teleoperation methods to resolve unexpected problems from Earth, and means for a digital representation of all relevant activities and conditions to maintain full control. Each challenge is addressed in the project AI-In-Orbit-Factory with various of AI methods. For the necessary digital representation of the in-orbit factory and all ongoing processes a knowledge-based approach and digital-twin methodology is used, which enables adaptive, flexible and understandable manufacturing processes. Especially the complex information flow between different manufacturing machines, digital process twins that orchestrate the production process and digital twins of satellites in production can be described. Furthermore, conflicts and possible error sources can be identified through inference. Utilizing the aforementioned knowledge base and standardized modular components the composition of a mission specific satellite is automatically planned based on the desired mission requirements. With the help of a robotic manipulator each module is optically inspected for production errors using a high-resolution camera and reference images, before they are integrated into the satellite structure. Once integrated, the submodules undergo optimized testing and anomaly detection routines with learned nominal subsystem behaviour models as input. Additionally, each manipulation step is supervised using force-feedback and vision-based anomaly detectors. For cases where automated assembly fails, a bilateral teleoperation system with force feedback is developed. In order to increase precision during teleoperated assembly and reduce mental and physical load, the human operator is assisted by adaptive virtual fixtures (haptic constraints). Adaptive fixtures are learned from both demonstration and simulation and parametrized depending on the manipulation phase, providing coarse to fine-grained support throughout approaching, positioning and haptic manipulation phases. An arbitration component detects the current manipulation phase to select the appropriate supporting fixture and ensure smooth transitions. This paper outlines the AI methods and our approach to reliable and adaptive in-orbit manufacturing and presents first results.

Uncontrolled Keywords: digital twin, AIT, teleoperation, AI, robotic manufacturing
Divisions: 16 Department of Mechanical Engineering
16 Department of Mechanical Engineering > Department of Computer Integrated Design (DiK) (from 01.09.2022 renamed "Product Life Cycle Management")
Date Deposited: 14 Dec 2021 06:26
Last Modified: 14 Dec 2021 06:26
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