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Revisiting the blocking force test on ferroelectric ceramics using high energy x-ray diffraction

Daniel, L. and Hall, D. A. and Koruza, Jurij and Webber, Kyle G. and King, A. and Withers, P. J. (2015):
Revisiting the blocking force test on ferroelectric ceramics using high energy x-ray diffraction.
117, In: Journal of Applied Physics, (17), pp. 174104(1-24), ISSN 0021-8979, [Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4918928],
[Article]

Abstract

The blocking force test is a standard test to characterise the properties of piezoelectric actuators. The aim of this study is to understand the various contributions to the macroscopic behaviour observed during this experiment that involves the intrinsic piezoelectric effect, ferroelectric domain switching, and internal stress development. For this purpose, a high energy diffraction experiment is performed in-situ during a blocking force test on a tetragonal lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic (Pb0.98Ba0.01(Zr0.51Ti0.49)0.98Nb0.02O3). It is shown that the usual macroscopic linear interpretation of the test can also be performed at the single crystal scale, allowing the identification of local apparent piezoelectric and elastic properties. It is also shown that despite this apparent linearity, the blocking force test involves significant non-linear behaviour mostly due to domain switching under electric field and stress. Although affecting a limited volume fraction of the material, domain switching is responsible for a large part of the macroscopic strain and explains the high level of inter- and intra-granular stresses observed during the course of the experiment. The study shows that if apparent piezoelectric and elastic properties can be identified for PZT single crystals from blocking stress curves, they may be very different from the actual properties of polycrystalline materials due to the multiplicity of the physical mechanisms involved. These apparent properties can be used for macroscopic modelling purposes but should be considered with caution if a local analysis is aimed at.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2015
Creators: Daniel, L. and Hall, D. A. and Koruza, Jurij and Webber, Kyle G. and King, A. and Withers, P. J.
Title: Revisiting the blocking force test on ferroelectric ceramics using high energy x-ray diffraction
Language: English
Abstract:

The blocking force test is a standard test to characterise the properties of piezoelectric actuators. The aim of this study is to understand the various contributions to the macroscopic behaviour observed during this experiment that involves the intrinsic piezoelectric effect, ferroelectric domain switching, and internal stress development. For this purpose, a high energy diffraction experiment is performed in-situ during a blocking force test on a tetragonal lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic (Pb0.98Ba0.01(Zr0.51Ti0.49)0.98Nb0.02O3). It is shown that the usual macroscopic linear interpretation of the test can also be performed at the single crystal scale, allowing the identification of local apparent piezoelectric and elastic properties. It is also shown that despite this apparent linearity, the blocking force test involves significant non-linear behaviour mostly due to domain switching under electric field and stress. Although affecting a limited volume fraction of the material, domain switching is responsible for a large part of the macroscopic strain and explains the high level of inter- and intra-granular stresses observed during the course of the experiment. The study shows that if apparent piezoelectric and elastic properties can be identified for PZT single crystals from blocking stress curves, they may be very different from the actual properties of polycrystalline materials due to the multiplicity of the physical mechanisms involved. These apparent properties can be used for macroscopic modelling purposes but should be considered with caution if a local analysis is aimed at.

Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Applied Physics
Volume: 117
Number: 17
Uncontrolled Keywords: Piezoelectric fields; Piezoelectric materials; X-ray diffraction; Elastic moduli; Materials analysis
Divisions: 11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Elektromechanik von Oxiden
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Nonmetallic-Inorganic Materials
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences
Date Deposited: 06 May 2015 09:44
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4918928
Identification Number: doi:10.1063/1.4918928
Funders: The authors are grateful for support provided by the ESRF under Grant No. MA-1727, “Ferroelectricferroelastic domain switching and the blocking stress in piezoelectric ceramics.”, This work was supported at the University of Manchester by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) under the Grant No. EP/J010685/1 and by the EPSRC/Xaar Ltd. Impact Acceleration Account, code IAA020.
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