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Evaporation of Falling and Shear-Driven Thin Films on Smooth and Grooved Surfaces

Helbig, K. and Alexeev, A. and Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana and Stephan, Peter (2005):
Evaporation of Falling and Shear-Driven Thin Films on Smooth and Grooved Surfaces.
75, In: Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, (1-4), pp. 85-104, ISSN 1386-6184, [Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10494-005-8582-5],
[Article]

Abstract

One of the most important tasks in development of modern gas turbine combustors is the reduction of NO x emissions. An effective way to reduce the NO x emission is using the lean premixed prevaporization (LPP) concept. An important phenomenon taking place in LPP chambers is the evaporation of thin fuel films. To increase the fuel evaporation rate, the use of microstructured walls has been suggested. The wall microstructures make use of the capillary forces to evenly distribute the liquid fuel over the wall, so that the appearance of uncontrolled dry patches can be avoided. Moreover, the wall structures promote the thin film evaporation characterized by ultra-high evaporation rates. An experimental setup was built for the investigation of thin liquid films falling down on the outer surface of vertical tubes with either a smooth or structured surface. In the first testing phase water is used, fuel like liquids will be used later on. The thin film can be heated from both sides, by hot oil flowing inside the tube, and by hot compressed air flowing in co-current direction to the thin film. The film is partly evaporated along the flow. Results for the wavy film structure at different Reynolds numbers are reported. For theoretical investigations a model describing the hydrodynamics and heat transfer due to evaporation of the gravity- and shear-driven undisturbed liquid film on structured surfaces was developed. For low Reynolds numbers or low liquid mass fluxes the wall surface is only partly covered with liquid and the heat transfer is shown to be governed by the evaporation of the ultra-thin film in the vicinity of the three-phase contact line. A numerical model for the solution of a two-dimensional free-surface flow of a liquid film over a structured wall was also developed. The Navier--Stokes equations are solved using the Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique. The energy equation is included in the model. The model is verified by comparison with data from the literature showing favorable agreement. In particular, the proposed model predicts the formation of capillary waves observed in the experiments. The model is used to investigate the flow of liquid on a structured wall. This calculation is the first step towards the modeling of a three-dimensional wavy flow of a gravity- and shear-driven film along a wall with longitudinal grooves. It is found that due to the Marangoni effect, a circulating flow arises within the cavity, thereby leading to an enhancement in the evaporation rate.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2005
Creators: Helbig, K. and Alexeev, A. and Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana and Stephan, Peter
Title: Evaporation of Falling and Shear-Driven Thin Films on Smooth and Grooved Surfaces
Language: English
Abstract:

One of the most important tasks in development of modern gas turbine combustors is the reduction of NO x emissions. An effective way to reduce the NO x emission is using the lean premixed prevaporization (LPP) concept. An important phenomenon taking place in LPP chambers is the evaporation of thin fuel films. To increase the fuel evaporation rate, the use of microstructured walls has been suggested. The wall microstructures make use of the capillary forces to evenly distribute the liquid fuel over the wall, so that the appearance of uncontrolled dry patches can be avoided. Moreover, the wall structures promote the thin film evaporation characterized by ultra-high evaporation rates. An experimental setup was built for the investigation of thin liquid films falling down on the outer surface of vertical tubes with either a smooth or structured surface. In the first testing phase water is used, fuel like liquids will be used later on. The thin film can be heated from both sides, by hot oil flowing inside the tube, and by hot compressed air flowing in co-current direction to the thin film. The film is partly evaporated along the flow. Results for the wavy film structure at different Reynolds numbers are reported. For theoretical investigations a model describing the hydrodynamics and heat transfer due to evaporation of the gravity- and shear-driven undisturbed liquid film on structured surfaces was developed. For low Reynolds numbers or low liquid mass fluxes the wall surface is only partly covered with liquid and the heat transfer is shown to be governed by the evaporation of the ultra-thin film in the vicinity of the three-phase contact line. A numerical model for the solution of a two-dimensional free-surface flow of a liquid film over a structured wall was also developed. The Navier--Stokes equations are solved using the Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique. The energy equation is included in the model. The model is verified by comparison with data from the literature showing favorable agreement. In particular, the proposed model predicts the formation of capillary waves observed in the experiments. The model is used to investigate the flow of liquid on a structured wall. This calculation is the first step towards the modeling of a three-dimensional wavy flow of a gravity- and shear-driven film along a wall with longitudinal grooves. It is found that due to the Marangoni effect, a circulating flow arises within the cavity, thereby leading to an enhancement in the evaporation rate.

Journal or Publication Title: Flow, Turbulence and Combustion
Volume: 75
Number: 1-4
Uncontrolled Keywords: liquid film;structured surfaces;thermocapillarity;LPP;evaporation from flat and grooved walls
Divisions: 16 Department of Mechanical Engineering
16 Department of Mechanical Engineering > Institute for Technical Thermodynamics (TTD)
Date Deposited: 26 Feb 2015 13:35
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10494-005-8582-5
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