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The limitations of the G1-S checkpoint.

Deckbar, Dorothee and Stiff, Thomas and Koch, Barbara and Reis, Caroline and Löbrich, Markus and Jeggo, Penny A. :
The limitations of the G1-S checkpoint.
[Online-Edition: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20460507]
In: Cancer research, 70 (11) pp. 4412-21. ISSN 1538-7445
[Article] , (2010)

Official URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20460507

Abstract

It has been proposed that the G(1)-S checkpoint is the critical regulator of genomic stability, preventing the cell cycle progression of cells with a single DNA double-strand break. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of asynchronous cells and microscopic analysis of asynchronous and synchronized cells, we show that full blockage of S-phase entry is only observed >4 hours after irradiation. The process is ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) dependent and Chk1/2 independent and can be activated throughout G(1) phase. By monitoring S-phase entry of irradiated synchronized cells, we show that the duration of arrest is dose dependent, with S-phase entry recommencing after arrest with kinetics similar to that observed in unirradiated cells. Thus, G(1)-S checkpoint arrest is not always permanent. Following exposure to higher doses (> or =2 Gy), G(1)-S arrest is inefficiently maintained, allowing progression of G(1)-phase cells into G(2) with elevated gammaH2AX foci and chromosome breaks. At early times after irradiation (< or =4 h), G(1)-S checkpoint arrest is not established but cells enter S phase at a reduced rate. This early slowing in S-phase entry is ATM and Chk2 dependent and detectable after 100 mGy, showing a novel and sensitive damage response. However, the time needed to establish G(1)-S checkpoint arrest provides a window when cells can progress to G(2) and form chromosome breaks. Our findings detail the efficacy of the G(1)-S checkpoint and define two significant limitations: At early times after IR, the activated checkpoint fails to efficiently prevent S-phase entry, and at later times, the checkpoint is inefficiently maintained.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2010
Creators: Deckbar, Dorothee and Stiff, Thomas and Koch, Barbara and Reis, Caroline and Löbrich, Markus and Jeggo, Penny A.
Title: The limitations of the G1-S checkpoint.
Language: English
Abstract:

It has been proposed that the G(1)-S checkpoint is the critical regulator of genomic stability, preventing the cell cycle progression of cells with a single DNA double-strand break. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of asynchronous cells and microscopic analysis of asynchronous and synchronized cells, we show that full blockage of S-phase entry is only observed >4 hours after irradiation. The process is ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) dependent and Chk1/2 independent and can be activated throughout G(1) phase. By monitoring S-phase entry of irradiated synchronized cells, we show that the duration of arrest is dose dependent, with S-phase entry recommencing after arrest with kinetics similar to that observed in unirradiated cells. Thus, G(1)-S checkpoint arrest is not always permanent. Following exposure to higher doses (> or =2 Gy), G(1)-S arrest is inefficiently maintained, allowing progression of G(1)-phase cells into G(2) with elevated gammaH2AX foci and chromosome breaks. At early times after irradiation (< or =4 h), G(1)-S checkpoint arrest is not established but cells enter S phase at a reduced rate. This early slowing in S-phase entry is ATM and Chk2 dependent and detectable after 100 mGy, showing a novel and sensitive damage response. However, the time needed to establish G(1)-S checkpoint arrest provides a window when cells can progress to G(2) and form chromosome breaks. Our findings detail the efficacy of the G(1)-S checkpoint and define two significant limitations: At early times after IR, the activated checkpoint fails to efficiently prevent S-phase entry, and at later times, the checkpoint is inefficiently maintained.

Journal or Publication Title: Cancer research
Volume: 70
Number: 11
Divisions: 10 Department of Biology > Radiation Biology and DNA Repair
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10 Department of Biology
Date Deposited: 07 Sep 2010 13:30
Official URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20460507
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