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Interactions of relativistic heavy ions in thick heavy element targets and some unresolved problems

Brandt, R. and Ditlov, V. and Dwivedi, K. and Ensinger, Wolfgang and Ganssauge, E. and Shi-Lun, Guo and Haiduc, M. and Hashemi-Nezhad, S. and Khan, H. A. and Krivopustov, M. and Odoj, R. and Pozharova, E. and Smirnitzki, V. and Sosnin, A. and Westmeier, W. and Zamani-Valasiadou, M. (2008):
Interactions of relativistic heavy ions in thick heavy element targets and some unresolved problems.
In: Physics of Particles and Nuclei, SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica, pp. 259-285, 39, (2), ISSN 1063-7796,
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11496-008-2004-3],
[Article]

Abstract

Interactions of relativistic heavy ions with total energies above 30 GeV in thick Cu and Pb targets (≥ 2 cm) have been studied with various techniques. Radiochemical irradiation experiments using thick Cu targets, both in a compact form or as diluted “2π-Cu targets” have been carried out with several relativistic heavy ions, such as 44 GeV 12C (JINR, Dubna, Russia) and 72 GeV 40Ar (LBL, Berkeley, USA). Neutron measuring experiments using thick targets irradiated with various relativistic heavy ions up to 44 GeV 12C have been performed at the JINR. In addition, the number of “black prongs” in nuclear interactions (due to protons with energies less than 30 MeV and emitted from the target-like interaction partner at rest) produced with 72 GeV 22Ne ions in nuclear emulsion plates has been measured in the first nuclear interaction of the primary 22Ne ion and in the following second nuclear interaction of the secondary heavy (Z > 1) ion. Some essential results have been obtained. (1) Spallation products produced by relativistic secondary fragments in interactions ([44 GeV 12C or 72 GeV 40Ar] + Cu) within thick copper yield fewer products close to the target and many more products far away from the target as compared to primary beam interactions. This applies also to secondary particles emitted into large angles (Θ > 10°). (2) The neutron production of 44 GeV 12C within thick Cu and Pb targets is beyond the estimated yield as based on experiments with 12 GeV 12C. These rather independent experimental results cannot be understood within well-accepted nuclear reaction models. They appear to present unresolved problems.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2008
Creators: Brandt, R. and Ditlov, V. and Dwivedi, K. and Ensinger, Wolfgang and Ganssauge, E. and Shi-Lun, Guo and Haiduc, M. and Hashemi-Nezhad, S. and Khan, H. A. and Krivopustov, M. and Odoj, R. and Pozharova, E. and Smirnitzki, V. and Sosnin, A. and Westmeier, W. and Zamani-Valasiadou, M.
Title: Interactions of relativistic heavy ions in thick heavy element targets and some unresolved problems
Language: English
Abstract:

Interactions of relativistic heavy ions with total energies above 30 GeV in thick Cu and Pb targets (≥ 2 cm) have been studied with various techniques. Radiochemical irradiation experiments using thick Cu targets, both in a compact form or as diluted “2π-Cu targets” have been carried out with several relativistic heavy ions, such as 44 GeV 12C (JINR, Dubna, Russia) and 72 GeV 40Ar (LBL, Berkeley, USA). Neutron measuring experiments using thick targets irradiated with various relativistic heavy ions up to 44 GeV 12C have been performed at the JINR. In addition, the number of “black prongs” in nuclear interactions (due to protons with energies less than 30 MeV and emitted from the target-like interaction partner at rest) produced with 72 GeV 22Ne ions in nuclear emulsion plates has been measured in the first nuclear interaction of the primary 22Ne ion and in the following second nuclear interaction of the secondary heavy (Z > 1) ion. Some essential results have been obtained. (1) Spallation products produced by relativistic secondary fragments in interactions ([44 GeV 12C or 72 GeV 40Ar] + Cu) within thick copper yield fewer products close to the target and many more products far away from the target as compared to primary beam interactions. This applies also to secondary particles emitted into large angles (Θ > 10°). (2) The neutron production of 44 GeV 12C within thick Cu and Pb targets is beyond the estimated yield as based on experiments with 12 GeV 12C. These rather independent experimental results cannot be understood within well-accepted nuclear reaction models. They appear to present unresolved problems.

Journal or Publication Title: Physics of Particles and Nuclei
Volume: 39
Number: 2
Publisher: SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica
Divisions: 11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Material Analytics
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences
Date Deposited: 06 Jul 2009 13:51
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11496-008-2004-3
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