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Cycle parameter dependent degradation analysis in automotive lithium-ion cells

Storch, Mathias ; Fath, Johannes Philipp ; Siegmann, Johannes ; Vrankovic, Dragoljub ; Mullaliu, Angelo ; Krupp, Carsten ; Spier, Bernd ; Passerini, Stefano ; Riedel, Ralf (2021):
Cycle parameter dependent degradation analysis in automotive lithium-ion cells.
In: Journal of Power Sources, 506, p. 230227. Elsevier, ISSN 0378-7753, e-ISSN 1873-2755,
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2021.230227,
[Article]

Abstract

In this study, we report on the operational parameter dependent degradation mechanisms occurring in cycled large-format automotive lithium-ion cells. The comprehension of these mechanisms is a prerequisite for design and operation of long-life lithium-ion cells. The degradation mechanisms are evaluated in dependence of cycle temperature, cut-off voltage, depth of discharge and discharge current, performing an extensive post-mortem analysis on cells subjected to a one-year-long cycle test. The main degradation mechanisms in the cells cycled at 60 °C are the large formation of gas, gas-assisted lithium plating, and, additionally, temperature-accelerated growth of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), as revealed by XPS depth-profiling. The growth of the SEI is intensified by using higher cut-off voltages, while transition metal dissolution is observed via STEM. The manganese ions incorporate into the SEI, causing a strong blue coloration of the anodes’ surface. The major effect in the cells cycled at high depth of discharge is the loss of cathode active material, as revealed by ICP-OES, XRD, and FIB-SEM measurements. The variation of the discharge current has no effect on the type of degradation mechanism occurring in the cells cycled at 20% depth of discharge.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2021
Creators: Storch, Mathias ; Fath, Johannes Philipp ; Siegmann, Johannes ; Vrankovic, Dragoljub ; Mullaliu, Angelo ; Krupp, Carsten ; Spier, Bernd ; Passerini, Stefano ; Riedel, Ralf
Title: Cycle parameter dependent degradation analysis in automotive lithium-ion cells
Language: English
Abstract:

In this study, we report on the operational parameter dependent degradation mechanisms occurring in cycled large-format automotive lithium-ion cells. The comprehension of these mechanisms is a prerequisite for design and operation of long-life lithium-ion cells. The degradation mechanisms are evaluated in dependence of cycle temperature, cut-off voltage, depth of discharge and discharge current, performing an extensive post-mortem analysis on cells subjected to a one-year-long cycle test. The main degradation mechanisms in the cells cycled at 60 °C are the large formation of gas, gas-assisted lithium plating, and, additionally, temperature-accelerated growth of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), as revealed by XPS depth-profiling. The growth of the SEI is intensified by using higher cut-off voltages, while transition metal dissolution is observed via STEM. The manganese ions incorporate into the SEI, causing a strong blue coloration of the anodes’ surface. The major effect in the cells cycled at high depth of discharge is the loss of cathode active material, as revealed by ICP-OES, XRD, and FIB-SEM measurements. The variation of the discharge current has no effect on the type of degradation mechanism occurring in the cells cycled at 20% depth of discharge.

Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Power Sources
Journal volume: 506
Publisher: Elsevier
Uncontrolled Keywords: Lithium-ion battery, Cycle aging, Post-mortem analysis, Solid electrolyte interphase, Transition metal dissolution, Cathode degradation
Divisions: 11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Dispersive Solids
Date Deposited: 27 Jul 2021 05:29
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2021.230227
Additional Information:

Mercedes-Benz AG, (Stuttgart, Germany), Deutsche Accumotive GmbH & Co. KG (Kamenz, Germany), BatterieIngenieure GmbH, (Aachen, Germany), NMI Naturwissenschaftliches und Medizinisches Institut, Universität Tübingen (Reutlingen, Germany), SGS Fresenius Institut (Dresden, Germany), Ulm university (Ulm, Germany), Helmholtz Association

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