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Potential for waste heat utilization of hot-water-cooled data centers: A case study

Oltmanns, Johannes and Sauerwein, David and Dammel, Frank and Stephan, Peter and Kuhn, Christoph (2020):
Potential for waste heat utilization of hot-water-cooled data centers: A case study.
In: Energy Science & Engineering, (5), 8. pp. 1793-1810, e-ISSN 20500505,
DOI: 10.1002/ese3.633,
[Online-Edition: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ese3.633],
[Article]

Abstract

Abstract The electric energy demand of data centers in Germany has grown rapidly from 10.5 TWh/a in 2010 to 13.2 TWh/a in 2017, an average of 25% of which are used to fulfill the data centers' cooling demand. In order to increase its energy efficiency, TU Darmstadt applies a new cooling concept in the next generation of its high-performance computing data center “Lichtenberg II.” Instead of the current air-cooled servers with water-cooled rear doors at 17-24°C, the new data center will be equipped with direct hot-water cooling for the high-performance computer, supplying heat at a temperature of 45°C. The high-temperature waste heat is used for heating purposes on the university's campus Lichtwiese. For waste heat utilization, two concepts are presented, either integrating the heat in the return line of the district heating network or using it locally in buildings located near the data center. Reductions in CO2 emission and annuity are generated both by decreased compression cooling demand for the data center and by decreased heat generation due to waste heat utilization. Depending on the scenario, a total of 20%-50% of the waste heat emitted by the high-performance computer can be used for heating purposes, while the remaining heat is dissipated efficiently via free cooling without additional energy demand for mechanical chillers. CO2 emission can be decreased by up to 720 , representing a reduction of about 4% of the total emission at campus Lichtwiese. TU Darmstadt is currently implementing the waste heat integration into its district heating network and will benefit from this concept starting in 2020.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2020
Creators: Oltmanns, Johannes and Sauerwein, David and Dammel, Frank and Stephan, Peter and Kuhn, Christoph
Title: Potential for waste heat utilization of hot-water-cooled data centers: A case study
Language: English
Abstract:

Abstract The electric energy demand of data centers in Germany has grown rapidly from 10.5 TWh/a in 2010 to 13.2 TWh/a in 2017, an average of 25% of which are used to fulfill the data centers' cooling demand. In order to increase its energy efficiency, TU Darmstadt applies a new cooling concept in the next generation of its high-performance computing data center “Lichtenberg II.” Instead of the current air-cooled servers with water-cooled rear doors at 17-24°C, the new data center will be equipped with direct hot-water cooling for the high-performance computer, supplying heat at a temperature of 45°C. The high-temperature waste heat is used for heating purposes on the university's campus Lichtwiese. For waste heat utilization, two concepts are presented, either integrating the heat in the return line of the district heating network or using it locally in buildings located near the data center. Reductions in CO2 emission and annuity are generated both by decreased compression cooling demand for the data center and by decreased heat generation due to waste heat utilization. Depending on the scenario, a total of 20%-50% of the waste heat emitted by the high-performance computer can be used for heating purposes, while the remaining heat is dissipated efficiently via free cooling without additional energy demand for mechanical chillers. CO2 emission can be decreased by up to 720 , representing a reduction of about 4% of the total emission at campus Lichtwiese. TU Darmstadt is currently implementing the waste heat integration into its district heating network and will benefit from this concept starting in 2020.

Journal or Publication Title: Energy Science & Engineering
Journal volume: 8
Number: 5
Uncontrolled Keywords: data center, district heating, high-performance computer, hot-water cooling, waste heat utilization
Divisions: 16 Department of Mechanical Engineering
16 Department of Mechanical Engineering > Institute for Technical Thermodynamics (TTD)
Date Deposited: 20 May 2020 05:59
DOI: 10.1002/ese3.633
Official URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ese3.633
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