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Towards a Greener and Scalable Synthesis of Na 2 Ti 6 O 13 Nanorods and Their Application as Anodes in Batteries for Grid‐Level Energy Storage

De Carolis, Dario M. ; Vrankovic, Dragoljub ; Kiefer, Samira A. ; Bruder, Enrico ; Dürrschnabel, Michael Thomas ; Molina‐Luna, Leopoldo ; Graczyk‐Zajac, Magdalena ; Riedel, Ralf (2021):
Towards a Greener and Scalable Synthesis of Na 2 Ti 6 O 13 Nanorods and Their Application as Anodes in Batteries for Grid‐Level Energy Storage.
In: Energy Technology, 9 (1), p. 2000856. Wiley-VCH, ISSN 2194-4288, e-ISSN 2194-4296,
DOI: 10.1002/ente.202000856,
[Article]

Abstract

Grid applications require high power density (for frequency regulation, load leveling, and renewable energy integration), achievable by combining multiple batteries in a system without strict high capacity requirements. For these applications however, safety, cost efficiency, and the lifespan of electrode materials are crucial. Titanates, safe and longevous anode materials providing much lower energy density than graphite, are excellent candidates for this application. The innovative molten salt synthesis approach proposed in this work provides exceptionally pure Na2Ti6O13 nanorods generated at 900-1100 degrees C in a yield >= 80 wt%. It is fast, cost-efficient, and suitable for industrial upscaling. Electrochemical tests reveal stable performance providing capacities of approximate to 100 mA h g(-1) (Li) and 40 mA h g(-1) (Na). Increasing the synthesis temperature to 1100 degrees C leads to a capacity decrease, most likely resulting from 1) the morphology/volume change with the synthesis temperature and 2) distortion of the Na2Ti6O13 tunnel structure indicated by electron energy-loss and Raman spectroscopy. The suitability of pristine Na2Ti6O13 as the anode for grid-level energy storage systems has been proven a priori, without any performance-boosting treatment, indicating considerable application potential especially due to the high yield and low cost of the synthesis route.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2021
Creators: De Carolis, Dario M. ; Vrankovic, Dragoljub ; Kiefer, Samira A. ; Bruder, Enrico ; Dürrschnabel, Michael Thomas ; Molina‐Luna, Leopoldo ; Graczyk‐Zajac, Magdalena ; Riedel, Ralf
Title: Towards a Greener and Scalable Synthesis of Na 2 Ti 6 O 13 Nanorods and Their Application as Anodes in Batteries for Grid‐Level Energy Storage
Language: English
Abstract:

Grid applications require high power density (for frequency regulation, load leveling, and renewable energy integration), achievable by combining multiple batteries in a system without strict high capacity requirements. For these applications however, safety, cost efficiency, and the lifespan of electrode materials are crucial. Titanates, safe and longevous anode materials providing much lower energy density than graphite, are excellent candidates for this application. The innovative molten salt synthesis approach proposed in this work provides exceptionally pure Na2Ti6O13 nanorods generated at 900-1100 degrees C in a yield >= 80 wt%. It is fast, cost-efficient, and suitable for industrial upscaling. Electrochemical tests reveal stable performance providing capacities of approximate to 100 mA h g(-1) (Li) and 40 mA h g(-1) (Na). Increasing the synthesis temperature to 1100 degrees C leads to a capacity decrease, most likely resulting from 1) the morphology/volume change with the synthesis temperature and 2) distortion of the Na2Ti6O13 tunnel structure indicated by electron energy-loss and Raman spectroscopy. The suitability of pristine Na2Ti6O13 as the anode for grid-level energy storage systems has been proven a priori, without any performance-boosting treatment, indicating considerable application potential especially due to the high yield and low cost of the synthesis route.

Journal or Publication Title: Energy Technology
Journal volume: 9
Number: 1
Publisher: Wiley-VCH
Uncontrolled Keywords: anode materials, grid storage, lithium, molten salt synthesis, sodium, MOLTEN-SALT SYNTHESIS, SODIUM-ION BATTERIES, ELECTRODE MATERIALS, LITHIUM INSERTION, RATE CAPABILITY, NA, TITANATE, LI, PERFORMANCE, NA2TI3O7
Divisions: 11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Advanced Electron Microscopy (aem)
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Dispersive Solids
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > In-situ electron microscopy
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Physical Metallurgy
TU-Projects: EC/H2020|805359|FOXON
Date Deposited: 18 Jan 2021 06:34
DOI: 10.1002/ente.202000856
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1002/ente.202000856
Additional Information:

Funding Information: European Research Council Grant Number 805359‐FOXON, Merck KGaA, Projekt DEAL

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