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Characterization of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Thin Films Fabricated by Exposure of Lead Iodide Layers to Methylammonium Iodide Vapor in a Closed Crucible Transformation Process

Dachauer, Ralph and Clemens, Oliver and Lakus‐Wollny, Kerstin and Mayer, Thomas and Jaegermann, Wolfram (2019):
Characterization of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Thin Films Fabricated by Exposure of Lead Iodide Layers to Methylammonium Iodide Vapor in a Closed Crucible Transformation Process.
In: physica status solidi (a), 216 (11), p. 1800894. Wiley-VCH, ISSN 1862-6300,
DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201800894,
[Article]

Abstract

In this work, the characterization of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) layers fabricated with a modified two‐step deposition technique under high vacuum is presented. Thereby, PbI2, deposited in an open sublimation process, is exposed to methylammonium iodide (MAI) vapor in a closed crucible. The fabricated layers are examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X‐ray diffraction (XRD), UV/VIS absorption spectroscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). In addition, planar solar cells incorporating the MAPI layers are produced. The obtained XRD data show that MAPI with high perovskite phase purity can be fabricated in a broad substrate temperature range between 75 °C and 150 °C. The SEM measurements show that with increasing substrate temperature the morphology of the MAPI layers undergoes significant changes which can be separated into three distinct processes, taking place simultaneously: formation of the perovskite by incorporation of MAI into the PbI2 grains, recrystallization of the perovskite grains, and an Ostwald ripening like growth of the recrystallized grains. By the combination of the UV/VIS and in vacuo PES data, band diagrams for PbI2, MAI, and MAPI can be drawn which appear to be independent on the substrate temperature.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2019
Creators: Dachauer, Ralph and Clemens, Oliver and Lakus‐Wollny, Kerstin and Mayer, Thomas and Jaegermann, Wolfram
Title: Characterization of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Thin Films Fabricated by Exposure of Lead Iodide Layers to Methylammonium Iodide Vapor in a Closed Crucible Transformation Process
Language: English
Abstract:

In this work, the characterization of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) layers fabricated with a modified two‐step deposition technique under high vacuum is presented. Thereby, PbI2, deposited in an open sublimation process, is exposed to methylammonium iodide (MAI) vapor in a closed crucible. The fabricated layers are examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X‐ray diffraction (XRD), UV/VIS absorption spectroscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). In addition, planar solar cells incorporating the MAPI layers are produced. The obtained XRD data show that MAPI with high perovskite phase purity can be fabricated in a broad substrate temperature range between 75 °C and 150 °C. The SEM measurements show that with increasing substrate temperature the morphology of the MAPI layers undergoes significant changes which can be separated into three distinct processes, taking place simultaneously: formation of the perovskite by incorporation of MAI into the PbI2 grains, recrystallization of the perovskite grains, and an Ostwald ripening like growth of the recrystallized grains. By the combination of the UV/VIS and in vacuo PES data, band diagrams for PbI2, MAI, and MAPI can be drawn which appear to be independent on the substrate temperature.

Journal or Publication Title: physica status solidi (a)
Journal volume: 216
Number: 11
Publisher: Wiley-VCH
Uncontrolled Keywords: band structure, in vacuo photoelectron spectroscopy, perovskite fabrication, perovskite morphology tuning, vacuum deposition
Divisions: 11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Fachgebiet Materialdesign durch Synthese
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Surface Science
Date Deposited: 04 Jun 2020 05:52
DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201800894
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.201800894
Projects: This work was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (grant number 03SF0483A)., O.C. acknowledges support by DFG within CL551/2‐1.
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