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High energy proton induced radiation damage of rare earth permanent magnet quadrupoles

Schanz, M. and Endres, M. and Löwe, K. and Lienig, T. and Deppert, O. and Lang, P. M. and Varentsov, D. and Hoffmann, D. H. H. and Gutfleisch, O. (2017):
High energy proton induced radiation damage of rare earth permanent magnet quadrupoles.
In: Review of Scientific Instruments, American Institute of Physics Publishing, p. 125103, 88, (12), ISSN 0034-6748,
DOI: 10.1063/1.4997116,
[Online-Edition: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4997116],
[Article]

Abstract

Permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs) are an alternative to common electromagnetic quadrupoles especially for fixed rigidity beam transport scenarios at particle accelerators. Using those magnets for experimental setups can result in certain scenarios, in which a PMQ itself may be exposed to a large amount of primary and secondary particles with a broad energy spectrum, interacting with the magnetic material and affecting its magnetic properties. One specific scenario is proton microscopy, where a proton beam traverses an object and a collimator in which a part of the beam is scattered and deflected into PMQs used as part of a diagnostic system. During the commissioning of the PRIOR (Proton Microscope for Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) high energy proton microscope facility prototype at Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung in 2014, a significant reduction of the image quality was observed which was partially attributed to the demagnetization of the used PMQ lenses and the corresponding decrease of the field quality. In order to study this phenomenon, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out and spare units manufactured from the same magnetic material-single wedges and a fully assembled PMQ module-were deliberately irradiated by a 3.6 GeV intense proton beam. The performed investigations have shown that in proton radiography applications the above described scattering may result in a high irradiation dose in the PMQ magnets. This did not only decrease the overall magnetic strength of the PMQs but also caused a significant degradation of the field quality of an assembled PMQ module by increasing the parasitic multipole field harmonics which effectively makes PMQs impractical for proton radiography applications or similar scenarios. Published by AIP Publishing.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2017
Creators: Schanz, M. and Endres, M. and Löwe, K. and Lienig, T. and Deppert, O. and Lang, P. M. and Varentsov, D. and Hoffmann, D. H. H. and Gutfleisch, O.
Title: High energy proton induced radiation damage of rare earth permanent magnet quadrupoles
Language: English
Abstract:

Permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs) are an alternative to common electromagnetic quadrupoles especially for fixed rigidity beam transport scenarios at particle accelerators. Using those magnets for experimental setups can result in certain scenarios, in which a PMQ itself may be exposed to a large amount of primary and secondary particles with a broad energy spectrum, interacting with the magnetic material and affecting its magnetic properties. One specific scenario is proton microscopy, where a proton beam traverses an object and a collimator in which a part of the beam is scattered and deflected into PMQs used as part of a diagnostic system. During the commissioning of the PRIOR (Proton Microscope for Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) high energy proton microscope facility prototype at Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung in 2014, a significant reduction of the image quality was observed which was partially attributed to the demagnetization of the used PMQ lenses and the corresponding decrease of the field quality. In order to study this phenomenon, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out and spare units manufactured from the same magnetic material-single wedges and a fully assembled PMQ module-were deliberately irradiated by a 3.6 GeV intense proton beam. The performed investigations have shown that in proton radiography applications the above described scattering may result in a high irradiation dose in the PMQ magnets. This did not only decrease the overall magnetic strength of the PMQs but also caused a significant degradation of the field quality of an assembled PMQ module by increasing the parasitic multipole field harmonics which effectively makes PMQs impractical for proton radiography applications or similar scenarios. Published by AIP Publishing.

Journal or Publication Title: Review of Scientific Instruments
Volume: 88
Number: 12
Publisher: American Institute of Physics Publishing
Divisions: 11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Functional Materials
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences
Date Deposited: 12 Mar 2018 10:41
DOI: 10.1063/1.4997116
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4997116
Funders: The researchers have received funding from the BMBF, grant Agreement Nos. 05K10RD1 and 05K13RDB, and were supported by the DFG in the framework of the Excellence Initiative,Darmstadt Graduate School of Excellence Energy Science and Engineering (GSC 1070)., We would like to thank the collaborators of the PRIOR project from the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics in Moscow, Russia, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, USA, for their support during the experiments.
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