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InverseI–VInjection Characteristics of ZnO Nanoparticle-Based Diodes

Mundt, Paul and Vogel, Stefan and Bonrad, Klaus and von Seggern, Heinz (2016):
InverseI–VInjection Characteristics of ZnO Nanoparticle-Based Diodes.
In: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, AMER CHEMICAL SOC, NW, WASHINGTON, DC, USA, pp. 20168-20175, 8, (31), ISSN 1944-8244, [Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b04193],
[Article]

Abstract

Simple Al/ZnO(NP)/Au diodes produced by spin coating of ZnO nanoparticle dispersions (ZnO(NP)) on Al/Al2O3 and Au substrates and subsequent Au deposition have been investigated to understand electron injection properties of more complex devices, incorporating ZnO(NP) as injection layer. Inverse I-V characteristics have been observed compared to conventional Al/ZnO(SP)/Au diodes produced by reactive ion sputtering of ZnO. SEM micrographs reveal that the void-containing contact of ZnO(NP) with the bottom Al electrode and the rough morphology of the top Au electrode are likely to be responsible for the observed injection and ejection probabilities of electrons. A simple tunneling model, incorporating the voids, explains the strongly reduced injection currents from Al whereas the top electrode fabricated by vapor deposition of Au onto the nanoparticle topology adopts the inverse ZnO(NP) morphology leading to enlarged injection areas combined with Au-tip landscapes. These tips in contrast to the smooth sputtered ZnO(SP) lead to electric field enhancement and strongly increased injection of electrons in reverse direction. The injected charge piles up at the barrier generated by voids between ZnO(NP) and the bottom electrode forcing a change in the barrier shape and therefore allowing for higher ejection rates. Both effects in combination explain the inverse I-V characteristic of nanoparticle based diodes.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2016
Creators: Mundt, Paul and Vogel, Stefan and Bonrad, Klaus and von Seggern, Heinz
Title: InverseI–VInjection Characteristics of ZnO Nanoparticle-Based Diodes
Language: English
Abstract:

Simple Al/ZnO(NP)/Au diodes produced by spin coating of ZnO nanoparticle dispersions (ZnO(NP)) on Al/Al2O3 and Au substrates and subsequent Au deposition have been investigated to understand electron injection properties of more complex devices, incorporating ZnO(NP) as injection layer. Inverse I-V characteristics have been observed compared to conventional Al/ZnO(SP)/Au diodes produced by reactive ion sputtering of ZnO. SEM micrographs reveal that the void-containing contact of ZnO(NP) with the bottom Al electrode and the rough morphology of the top Au electrode are likely to be responsible for the observed injection and ejection probabilities of electrons. A simple tunneling model, incorporating the voids, explains the strongly reduced injection currents from Al whereas the top electrode fabricated by vapor deposition of Au onto the nanoparticle topology adopts the inverse ZnO(NP) morphology leading to enlarged injection areas combined with Au-tip landscapes. These tips in contrast to the smooth sputtered ZnO(SP) lead to electric field enhancement and strongly increased injection of electrons in reverse direction. The injected charge piles up at the barrier generated by voids between ZnO(NP) and the bottom electrode forcing a change in the barrier shape and therefore allowing for higher ejection rates. Both effects in combination explain the inverse I-V characteristic of nanoparticle based diodes.

Journal or Publication Title: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Volume: 8
Number: 31
Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC, NW, WASHINGTON, DC, USA
Uncontrolled Keywords: metal oxides, ZnO, nanoparticles, inverse I-V, diode; tip injection, tunneling
Divisions: 11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Advanced Thin Film Technology
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Electronic Materials
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences
Date Deposited: 18 Nov 2016 11:52
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b04193
Identification Number: doi:10.1021/acsami.6b04193
Funders: Paul Mundt received funding from the Merck KGaA and the Helmholtz Virtual Institute (VH-VI-530). Klaus Bonrad received funding from Merck KGaA.
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