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Nitrous Oxide Metabolism in Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria: Physiology and Regulatory Mechanisms.

Torres, M. J. and Simon, Jörg and Rowley, G. and Bedmar, E. J. and Richardson, D. J. and Gates, A. J. and Delgado, M. J. (2016):
Nitrous Oxide Metabolism in Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria: Physiology and Regulatory Mechanisms.
68, In: Advances in microbial physiology, pp. 353-432, ISSN 2162-5468, [Article]

Abstract

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) with substantial global warming potential and also contributes to ozone depletion through photochemical nitric oxide (NO) production in the stratosphere. The negative effects of N2O on climate and stratospheric ozone make N2O mitigation an international challenge. More than 60% of global N2O emissions are emitted from agricultural soils mainly due to the application of synthetic nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Thus, mitigation strategies must be developed which increase (or at least do not negatively impact) on agricultural efficiency whilst decrease the levels of N2O released. This aim is particularly important in the context of the ever expanding population and subsequent increased burden on the food chain. More than two-thirds of N2O emissions from soils can be attributed to bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes. In ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, N2O is formed through the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite. In denitrifiers, nitrate is reduced to N2 via nitrite, NO and N2O production. In addition to denitrification, respiratory nitrate ammonification (also termed dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium) is another important nitrate-reducing mechanism in soil, responsible for the loss of nitrate and production of N2O from reduction of NO that is formed as a by-product of the reduction process. This review will synthesize our current understanding of the environmental, regulatory and biochemical control of N2O emissions by nitrate-reducing bacteria and point to new solutions for agricultural GHG mitigation.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2016
Creators: Torres, M. J. and Simon, Jörg and Rowley, G. and Bedmar, E. J. and Richardson, D. J. and Gates, A. J. and Delgado, M. J.
Title: Nitrous Oxide Metabolism in Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria: Physiology and Regulatory Mechanisms.
Language: English
Abstract:

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) with substantial global warming potential and also contributes to ozone depletion through photochemical nitric oxide (NO) production in the stratosphere. The negative effects of N2O on climate and stratospheric ozone make N2O mitigation an international challenge. More than 60% of global N2O emissions are emitted from agricultural soils mainly due to the application of synthetic nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Thus, mitigation strategies must be developed which increase (or at least do not negatively impact) on agricultural efficiency whilst decrease the levels of N2O released. This aim is particularly important in the context of the ever expanding population and subsequent increased burden on the food chain. More than two-thirds of N2O emissions from soils can be attributed to bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes. In ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, N2O is formed through the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite. In denitrifiers, nitrate is reduced to N2 via nitrite, NO and N2O production. In addition to denitrification, respiratory nitrate ammonification (also termed dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium) is another important nitrate-reducing mechanism in soil, responsible for the loss of nitrate and production of N2O from reduction of NO that is formed as a by-product of the reduction process. This review will synthesize our current understanding of the environmental, regulatory and biochemical control of N2O emissions by nitrate-reducing bacteria and point to new solutions for agricultural GHG mitigation.

Journal or Publication Title: Advances in microbial physiology
Volume: 68
Divisions: 10 Department of Biology
10 Department of Biology > Microbial Energy Conversion and Biotechnology
Date Deposited: 10 May 2016 09:50
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