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Visualization of polar nanoregions in lead-free relaxors via piezoresponse force microscopy in torsional dual AC resonance tracking mode

Liu, Na and Dittmer, Robert and Stark, Robert W. and Dietz, Christian (2015):
Visualization of polar nanoregions in lead-free relaxors via piezoresponse force microscopy in torsional dual AC resonance tracking mode.
In: Nanoscale, p. 10835, (25), ISSN 2040-3364, [Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5nr01326g],
[Article]

Abstract

Polar nanoregions (PNRs) play a key role in the functionality of relaxor ferroelectrics; however, visualizing them in lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics with high lateral resolution is still challenging. Thus, we studied herein the local ferroelectric domain distribution of the lead-free bismuth-based (1 − x)(Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3–Bi1/2K1/2TiO3) − x(Bi1/2Mg1/2TiO3) piezoceramics which show a relaxor behavior using dual AC resonance tracking (DART) piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). By using excitation frequencies at either side of the contact resonance peak of the torsional cantilever vibration, an enhanced contrast in the amplitude and phase images of the piezoresponse can be achieved. Additionally, this tracking technique reduces the topographical crosstalk while mapping the local electromechanical properties. The true drive amplitude, drive phase, contact resonant frequency and quality factor can be estimated from DART-PFM data obtained with vertically or torsionally vibrating cantilevers. This procedure yields a three-dimensional quantitative map of the local piezoelectric properties of the relaxor ferroelectric samples. With this approach, torsional DART allowed for the visualization of fine substructures within the monodomains, suggesting the existence of PNRs in relaxor ferroelectrics. The domain structures of the PNRs were visualized with high precision, and the local electromechanical characteristics of the lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics were quantitatively mapped.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2015
Creators: Liu, Na and Dittmer, Robert and Stark, Robert W. and Dietz, Christian
Title: Visualization of polar nanoregions in lead-free relaxors via piezoresponse force microscopy in torsional dual AC resonance tracking mode
Language: English
Abstract:

Polar nanoregions (PNRs) play a key role in the functionality of relaxor ferroelectrics; however, visualizing them in lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics with high lateral resolution is still challenging. Thus, we studied herein the local ferroelectric domain distribution of the lead-free bismuth-based (1 − x)(Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3–Bi1/2K1/2TiO3) − x(Bi1/2Mg1/2TiO3) piezoceramics which show a relaxor behavior using dual AC resonance tracking (DART) piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). By using excitation frequencies at either side of the contact resonance peak of the torsional cantilever vibration, an enhanced contrast in the amplitude and phase images of the piezoresponse can be achieved. Additionally, this tracking technique reduces the topographical crosstalk while mapping the local electromechanical properties. The true drive amplitude, drive phase, contact resonant frequency and quality factor can be estimated from DART-PFM data obtained with vertically or torsionally vibrating cantilevers. This procedure yields a three-dimensional quantitative map of the local piezoelectric properties of the relaxor ferroelectric samples. With this approach, torsional DART allowed for the visualization of fine substructures within the monodomains, suggesting the existence of PNRs in relaxor ferroelectrics. The domain structures of the PNRs were visualized with high precision, and the local electromechanical characteristics of the lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics were quantitatively mapped.

Journal or Publication Title: Nanoscale
Number: 25
Divisions: 11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Nonmetallic-Inorganic Materials
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Physics of Surfaces
DFG-Collaborative Research Centres (incl. Transregio) > Collaborative Research Centres > CRC 595: Electrical fatigue > A - Synthesis > Subproject A1: Manufacturing of ceramic, textured actuators with high strain
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science
DFG-Collaborative Research Centres (incl. Transregio) > Collaborative Research Centres > CRC 595: Electrical fatigue > A - Synthesis
DFG-Collaborative Research Centres (incl. Transregio) > Collaborative Research Centres > CRC 595: Electrical fatigue
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences
Zentrale Einrichtungen
DFG-Collaborative Research Centres (incl. Transregio) > Collaborative Research Centres
DFG-Collaborative Research Centres (incl. Transregio)
Date Deposited: 29 Jun 2015 12:43
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5nr01326g
Additional Information:

SFB 595 A1

Identification Number: doi:10.1039/c5nr01326g
Funders: We thank the Center of Smart Interfaces for financial support. Robert Dittmer thanks the SFB 595 for financial support.
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