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Community assembly of biological soil crusts of different successional stages in temperate sand ecosystem, as assessed by direct determination and enrichment techniques

Langhans, Tanja M. ; Storm, Christian ; Schwabe, Angelika :
Community assembly of biological soil crusts of different successional stages in temperate sand ecosystem, as assessed by direct determination and enrichment techniques.
[Online-Edition: http://www.springerlink.com/content/tv4kvu7800326u0u/fulltex...]
In: Microbial Ecology, 58 (2) pp. 394-407.
[Artikel], (2009)

Offizielle URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/tv4kvu7800326u0u/fulltex...

Kurzbeschreibung (Abstract)

In temperate regions, biological soil crusts (BSCs: complex communities of cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae, bryophytes, and lichens) are not well investigated regarding community structure and diversity. Furthermore, studies on succession are rare. For that reason, the community assembly of crusts representing two successional stages (initial, 5 years old; and stable, > 20 years old) were analyzed in an inland sand ecosystem in Germany in a plot-based approach (2 x 18 plots, each 20 x 20 cm). Two different methods were used to record the cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae in these communities comprehensively: determination directly out of the soil and enrichment culture techniques. Additionally, lichens, bryophytes, and phanerogams were determined. We examine four hypotheses: (1) A combination of direct determination and enrichment culture technique is necessary to detect cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae comprehensively. In total, 45 species of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae were detected in the study area with both techniques, including 26 eukaryotic algae and 19 cyanobacteria species. With both determination techniques, 22 identical taxa were detected (11 eukaryotic algae and 11 cyanobacteria). Thirteen taxa were only found by direct determination, and ten taxa were only found in enrichment cultures. Hence, the hypothesis is supported. Additionally, five lichen species (three genera), five bryophyte species (five genera), and 24 vascular plant species occurred. (2) There is a clear difference between the floristic structure of initial and stable crusts. The different successional stages are clearly separated by detrended correspondence analysis, showing a distinct structure of the community assembly in each stage. In the initial crusts, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Klebsormidium cf. klebsii, and Stichococcus bacillaris were important indicator species, whereas the stable crusts are especially characterized by Tortella inclinata. (3) The biodiversity of BSC taxa and vascular plant species increases from initial to stable BSCs. There are significantly higher genera and species numbers of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae in initial BSCs. Stable BSCs are characterized by significantly higher species numbers of bryophytes and vascular plant species. The results show that, in the investigated temperate region, the often-assumed increase of biodiversity in the course of succession is clearly taxa-dependent. Both successional stages of BSCs are diversity "hot spots" with about 29 species of all taxa per 20 x 20 cm plot. (4) Nitrogen and chlorophyll a concentrations increase in the course of succession. The chlorophyll a content of the crusts (cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae, bryophyte protonemata) is highly variable across the studied samples, with no significant differences between initial and stable BSCs; nor were ecologically significant differences in soil nutrient contents observed. According to our results, we cannot confirm this hypothesis; the age difference between our two stages is probably not big enough to show such an increase.

Typ des Eintrags: Artikel
Erschienen: 2009
Autor(en): Langhans, Tanja M. ; Storm, Christian ; Schwabe, Angelika
Titel: Community assembly of biological soil crusts of different successional stages in temperate sand ecosystem, as assessed by direct determination and enrichment techniques
Sprache: Englisch
Kurzbeschreibung (Abstract):

In temperate regions, biological soil crusts (BSCs: complex communities of cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae, bryophytes, and lichens) are not well investigated regarding community structure and diversity. Furthermore, studies on succession are rare. For that reason, the community assembly of crusts representing two successional stages (initial, 5 years old; and stable, > 20 years old) were analyzed in an inland sand ecosystem in Germany in a plot-based approach (2 x 18 plots, each 20 x 20 cm). Two different methods were used to record the cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae in these communities comprehensively: determination directly out of the soil and enrichment culture techniques. Additionally, lichens, bryophytes, and phanerogams were determined. We examine four hypotheses: (1) A combination of direct determination and enrichment culture technique is necessary to detect cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae comprehensively. In total, 45 species of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae were detected in the study area with both techniques, including 26 eukaryotic algae and 19 cyanobacteria species. With both determination techniques, 22 identical taxa were detected (11 eukaryotic algae and 11 cyanobacteria). Thirteen taxa were only found by direct determination, and ten taxa were only found in enrichment cultures. Hence, the hypothesis is supported. Additionally, five lichen species (three genera), five bryophyte species (five genera), and 24 vascular plant species occurred. (2) There is a clear difference between the floristic structure of initial and stable crusts. The different successional stages are clearly separated by detrended correspondence analysis, showing a distinct structure of the community assembly in each stage. In the initial crusts, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Klebsormidium cf. klebsii, and Stichococcus bacillaris were important indicator species, whereas the stable crusts are especially characterized by Tortella inclinata. (3) The biodiversity of BSC taxa and vascular plant species increases from initial to stable BSCs. There are significantly higher genera and species numbers of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae in initial BSCs. Stable BSCs are characterized by significantly higher species numbers of bryophytes and vascular plant species. The results show that, in the investigated temperate region, the often-assumed increase of biodiversity in the course of succession is clearly taxa-dependent. Both successional stages of BSCs are diversity "hot spots" with about 29 species of all taxa per 20 x 20 cm plot. (4) Nitrogen and chlorophyll a concentrations increase in the course of succession. The chlorophyll a content of the crusts (cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae, bryophyte protonemata) is highly variable across the studied samples, with no significant differences between initial and stable BSCs; nor were ecologically significant differences in soil nutrient contents observed. According to our results, we cannot confirm this hypothesis; the age difference between our two stages is probably not big enough to show such an increase.

Titel der Zeitschrift, Zeitung oder Schriftenreihe: Microbial Ecology
Band: 58
(Heft-)Nummer: 2
Fachbereich(e)/-gebiet(e): Fachbereich Biologie, Biology > Vegetationsökologie und Restitution, Vegetation ecology - Restoration
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Fachbereich Biologie, Biology
Hinterlegungsdatum: 19 Okt 2011 12:19
Offizielle URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/tv4kvu7800326u0u/fulltex...
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