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CuO as a sintering additive for (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3–BaTiO3–(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 lead-free piezoceramics

Jo, Wook and Ollagnier, Jean-Baptiste and Park, Jong-Lo and Anton, Eva-Maria and Kwon, O-Jong and Park, Chan and Seo, Hyun-Ho and Lee, Jong-Sook and Erdem, Emre and Eichel, Rüdiger-A. and Rödel, Jürgen (2011):
CuO as a sintering additive for (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3–BaTiO3–(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 lead-free piezoceramics.
In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, pp. 2107-217, 31, (12), ISSN 09552219, [Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2011.05.008],
[Article]

Abstract

CuO as a sintering additivewas utilized to explore a low-temperature sintering of 0.92(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3–0.06BaTiO3–0.02(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 lead-free piezoceramic which has shown a promise for actuator applications due to its large strain. The sintering temperature guaranteeing the relative density of greater than 98% is drastically decreased with CuO addition, and saturates at a temperature as low as ∼930 ◦C when the addition level exceeds ca. 1 mol.%. Two distinguished features induced by the addition of CuO were noted. Firstly, the initially existing two-phase mixture gradually evolves into a rhombohedral single phase with an extremely small non-cubic distortion. Secondly, a liquid phase induced by the addition of CuO causes an abnormal grain growth, which can be attributed to the grain boundary reentrant edge mechanism. Based on these two observations, it is concluded that the added CuO not only forms a liquid phase but also diffuses into the lattice. In the meantime, temperature dependent permittivity measurements both on unpoled and poled samples suggest that the phase stability of the system is greatly influenced by the addition of CuO. Polarization and strain hysteresis measurements relate the changes in the phase stability closely to the stabilization of ferroelectric order, as exemplified by a significant increase in both the remanent strain and polarization values. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic analysis revealed that the stabilization of ferroelectric order originates from a significant amount of Cu2+ diffusing into the lattice on B-site. There, it acts as an acceptor and forms a defect dipole in association with a charge balancing oxygen vacancy.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2011
Creators: Jo, Wook and Ollagnier, Jean-Baptiste and Park, Jong-Lo and Anton, Eva-Maria and Kwon, O-Jong and Park, Chan and Seo, Hyun-Ho and Lee, Jong-Sook and Erdem, Emre and Eichel, Rüdiger-A. and Rödel, Jürgen
Title: CuO as a sintering additive for (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3–BaTiO3–(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 lead-free piezoceramics
Language: English
Abstract:

CuO as a sintering additivewas utilized to explore a low-temperature sintering of 0.92(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3–0.06BaTiO3–0.02(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 lead-free piezoceramic which has shown a promise for actuator applications due to its large strain. The sintering temperature guaranteeing the relative density of greater than 98% is drastically decreased with CuO addition, and saturates at a temperature as low as ∼930 ◦C when the addition level exceeds ca. 1 mol.%. Two distinguished features induced by the addition of CuO were noted. Firstly, the initially existing two-phase mixture gradually evolves into a rhombohedral single phase with an extremely small non-cubic distortion. Secondly, a liquid phase induced by the addition of CuO causes an abnormal grain growth, which can be attributed to the grain boundary reentrant edge mechanism. Based on these two observations, it is concluded that the added CuO not only forms a liquid phase but also diffuses into the lattice. In the meantime, temperature dependent permittivity measurements both on unpoled and poled samples suggest that the phase stability of the system is greatly influenced by the addition of CuO. Polarization and strain hysteresis measurements relate the changes in the phase stability closely to the stabilization of ferroelectric order, as exemplified by a significant increase in both the remanent strain and polarization values. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic analysis revealed that the stabilization of ferroelectric order originates from a significant amount of Cu2+ diffusing into the lattice on B-site. There, it acts as an acceptor and forms a defect dipole in association with a charge balancing oxygen vacancy.

Journal or Publication Title: Journal of the European Ceramic Society
Volume: 31
Number: 12
Uncontrolled Keywords: Lead-free piezoceramics; C. Dielectric properties; C. Piezoelectric properties; A. Grain growth; B. Spectroscopy
Divisions: 11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Nonmetallic-Inorganic Materials
Zentrale Einrichtungen
DFG-Collaborative Research Centres (incl. Transregio) > Collaborative Research Centres > CRC 595: Electrical fatigue
DFG-Collaborative Research Centres (incl. Transregio) > Collaborative Research Centres > CRC 595: Electrical fatigue > A - Synthesis
DFG-Collaborative Research Centres (incl. Transregio) > Collaborative Research Centres > CRC 595: Electrical fatigue > A - Synthesis > Subproject A1: Manufacturing of ceramic, textured actuators with high strain
DFG-Collaborative Research Centres (incl. Transregio) > Collaborative Research Centres > CRC 595: Electrical fatigue > B - Characterisation > Subproject B1: EPR-Investigations of defects in ferroelectric ceramic material
DFG-Collaborative Research Centres (incl. Transregio) > Collaborative Research Centres > CRC 595: Electrical fatigue > B - Characterisation
DFG-Collaborative Research Centres (incl. Transregio) > Collaborative Research Centres
DFG-Collaborative Research Centres (incl. Transregio)
Date Deposited: 04 Jul 2011 15:56
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2011.05.008
Additional Information:

SFB 595 Cooperation A1, B1

Identification Number: doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2011.05.008
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