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Sister chromatid exchanges occur in G2-irradiated cells.

Conrad, Sandro and Künzel, Julia and Löbrich, Markus (2011):
Sister chromatid exchanges occur in G2-irradiated cells.
In: Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.), pp. 222-8, 10, (2), ISSN 1551-4005,
[Article]

Abstract

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are arguably the most important lesions induced by ionizing radiation (IR) since unrepaired or mis-repaired DSBs can lead to chromosomal aberrations and cell death. The two major pathways to repair IR-induced DSBs are non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). Perhaps surprisingly, NHEJ represents the predominant pathway in the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle, but HR also contributes and repairs a subset of IR-induced DSBs in G2. Following S-phase-dependent genotoxins, HR events give rise to sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), which can be detected cytogenetically in mitosis. Here, we describe that HR occurring in G2-irradiated cells also generates SCEs in ~50% of HR events. Since HR of IR-induced DSBs in G2 is a slow process, SCE formation in G2-irradiated cells requires several hours. During this time, irradiated S-phase cells can also reach mitosis, which has contributed to the widely held belief that SCEs form only during S phase. We describe procedures to measure SCEs exclusively in G2-irradiated cells and provide evidence that following IR cells do not need to progress through S phase in order to form SCEs.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2011
Creators: Conrad, Sandro and Künzel, Julia and Löbrich, Markus
Title: Sister chromatid exchanges occur in G2-irradiated cells.
Language: English
Abstract:

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are arguably the most important lesions induced by ionizing radiation (IR) since unrepaired or mis-repaired DSBs can lead to chromosomal aberrations and cell death. The two major pathways to repair IR-induced DSBs are non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). Perhaps surprisingly, NHEJ represents the predominant pathway in the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle, but HR also contributes and repairs a subset of IR-induced DSBs in G2. Following S-phase-dependent genotoxins, HR events give rise to sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), which can be detected cytogenetically in mitosis. Here, we describe that HR occurring in G2-irradiated cells also generates SCEs in ~50% of HR events. Since HR of IR-induced DSBs in G2 is a slow process, SCE formation in G2-irradiated cells requires several hours. During this time, irradiated S-phase cells can also reach mitosis, which has contributed to the widely held belief that SCEs form only during S phase. We describe procedures to measure SCEs exclusively in G2-irradiated cells and provide evidence that following IR cells do not need to progress through S phase in order to form SCEs.

Journal or Publication Title: Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
Volume: 10
Number: 2
Divisions: 10 Department of Biology > Radiation Biology and DNA Repair
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10 Department of Biology
Date Deposited: 14 Mar 2011 15:19
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