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Electrophysiology in the eukaryotic model cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Bertl, A. and Bihler, H. and Kettner, C. and Slayman, C. L. (1998):
Electrophysiology in the eukaryotic model cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
436, In: Pflügers Archiv : European journal of physiology, (6), pp. 999-1013, ISSN 0031-6768, [Online-Edition: http://www.springerlink.com/content/e3cuawbejc5xghhp/],
[Article]

Abstract

Since the mid-1980s, use of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for expression of heterologous (foreign) genes and proteins has burgeoned for several major purposes, including facile genetic manipulation, large-scale production of specific proteins, and preliminary functional analysis. Expression of heterologous membrane proteins in yeast has not kept pace with expression of cytoplasmic proteins for two principal reasons: (1) although plant and fungal proteins express and function easily in yeast membranes, animal proteins do not, at least yet; and (2) the yeast plasma membrane is generally regarded as a difficult system to which to apply the standard electrophysiological techniques for detailed functional analysis of membrane proteins. Especially now, since completion of the genome-sequencing project for Saccharomyces, yeast membranes themselves can be seen as an ample source of diverse membrane proteins - including ion channels, pumps, and cotransporters - which lend themselves to electrophysiological analysis, and specifically to patch-clamping. Using some of these native proteins for assay, we report systematic methods to prepare both the yeast plasma membrane and the yeast vacuolar membrane (tonoplast) for patch-clamp experiments. We also describe optimized ambient conditions - such as electrode preparation, buffer solutions, and time regimens - which facilitate efficient patch recording from Saccharomyces membranes. There are two main keys to successful patch-clamping with Saccharomyces. The first is patience; the second is scrupulous cleanliness. Large cells, such as provided by polyploid strains, are also useful in yeast patch recording, especially while the skill required for gigaseal formation is being learned. Cleanliness is aided by (1) osmotic extrusion of protoplasts, after minimal digestion of yeast walls; (2) use of a rather spare suspension of protoplasts in the recording chamber; (3) maintenance of continuous chamber perfusion prior to formation of gigaseals; (4) preparation (pulling and filling) of patch pipettes immediately before use; (5) application of a modest pressure head to the pipette-filling solution before the tip enters the recording bath; (6) optical control for debris at the pipette tip; and (7) discarding of any pipette that does not "work" on the first try at gigaseal formation. Other useful tricks toward gigaseal formation include the making of protoplasts from cells grown aerobically, rather than anaerobically; use of sustained but gentle suction, rather than hard suction; and manipulation of bath temperature and/or osmotic strength. Yeast plasma membranes form gigaseals with difficulty, but these tend to be very stable and allow for long-term cell-attached or whole-cell recording. Yeast tonoplasts form gigaseals with ease, but these tend to be unstable and rarely allow recording for more than 15 min. The difference of stability accrues mainly because of the fact that yeast protoplasts adhere only lightly to the recording chamber and can therefore be lifted away on the patch pipette, whereas yeast vacuoles adhere firmly to the chamber bottom and are subsequently stressed by very slight relative movements of the pipette. With plasma membranes, conversion from cell-attached recording geometry to isolated ISO patch (inside-out) geometry is accomplished by blowing a fine stream of air bubbles across the pipette tip; to whole-cell recording geometry, by combining suction and one high-voltage pulse; and from whole-cell to OSO patch (outside-out) geometry, by sudden acceleration of the bath perfusion stream. With tonoplasts, conversion from the vacuole-attached recording geometry to whole-vacuole geometry is accomplished by application of a large brief voltage pulse; and further conversion to the OSO patch geometry is carried out conventionally, by slow withdrawal of the patch pipette from the vacuole, which usually remains attached to the chamber bottom.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 1998
Creators: Bertl, A. and Bihler, H. and Kettner, C. and Slayman, C. L.
Title: Electrophysiology in the eukaryotic model cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Language: English
Abstract:

Since the mid-1980s, use of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for expression of heterologous (foreign) genes and proteins has burgeoned for several major purposes, including facile genetic manipulation, large-scale production of specific proteins, and preliminary functional analysis. Expression of heterologous membrane proteins in yeast has not kept pace with expression of cytoplasmic proteins for two principal reasons: (1) although plant and fungal proteins express and function easily in yeast membranes, animal proteins do not, at least yet; and (2) the yeast plasma membrane is generally regarded as a difficult system to which to apply the standard electrophysiological techniques for detailed functional analysis of membrane proteins. Especially now, since completion of the genome-sequencing project for Saccharomyces, yeast membranes themselves can be seen as an ample source of diverse membrane proteins - including ion channels, pumps, and cotransporters - which lend themselves to electrophysiological analysis, and specifically to patch-clamping. Using some of these native proteins for assay, we report systematic methods to prepare both the yeast plasma membrane and the yeast vacuolar membrane (tonoplast) for patch-clamp experiments. We also describe optimized ambient conditions - such as electrode preparation, buffer solutions, and time regimens - which facilitate efficient patch recording from Saccharomyces membranes. There are two main keys to successful patch-clamping with Saccharomyces. The first is patience; the second is scrupulous cleanliness. Large cells, such as provided by polyploid strains, are also useful in yeast patch recording, especially while the skill required for gigaseal formation is being learned. Cleanliness is aided by (1) osmotic extrusion of protoplasts, after minimal digestion of yeast walls; (2) use of a rather spare suspension of protoplasts in the recording chamber; (3) maintenance of continuous chamber perfusion prior to formation of gigaseals; (4) preparation (pulling and filling) of patch pipettes immediately before use; (5) application of a modest pressure head to the pipette-filling solution before the tip enters the recording bath; (6) optical control for debris at the pipette tip; and (7) discarding of any pipette that does not "work" on the first try at gigaseal formation. Other useful tricks toward gigaseal formation include the making of protoplasts from cells grown aerobically, rather than anaerobically; use of sustained but gentle suction, rather than hard suction; and manipulation of bath temperature and/or osmotic strength. Yeast plasma membranes form gigaseals with difficulty, but these tend to be very stable and allow for long-term cell-attached or whole-cell recording. Yeast tonoplasts form gigaseals with ease, but these tend to be unstable and rarely allow recording for more than 15 min. The difference of stability accrues mainly because of the fact that yeast protoplasts adhere only lightly to the recording chamber and can therefore be lifted away on the patch pipette, whereas yeast vacuoles adhere firmly to the chamber bottom and are subsequently stressed by very slight relative movements of the pipette. With plasma membranes, conversion from cell-attached recording geometry to isolated ISO patch (inside-out) geometry is accomplished by blowing a fine stream of air bubbles across the pipette tip; to whole-cell recording geometry, by combining suction and one high-voltage pulse; and from whole-cell to OSO patch (outside-out) geometry, by sudden acceleration of the bath perfusion stream. With tonoplasts, conversion from the vacuole-attached recording geometry to whole-vacuole geometry is accomplished by application of a large brief voltage pulse; and further conversion to the OSO patch geometry is carried out conventionally, by slow withdrawal of the patch pipette from the vacuole, which usually remains attached to the chamber bottom.

Journal or Publication Title: Pflügers Archiv : European journal of physiology
Volume: 436
Number: 6
Divisions: 10 Department of Biology
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10 Department of Biology > Yeast Membrane Biology
Date Deposited: 25 Nov 2010 15:31
Official URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/e3cuawbejc5xghhp/
Identification Number: doi:10.1007/s004240050735
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