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Modifiers and coatings in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry--mechanisms of action (A tutorial review)

Ortner, H. M. and Bulska, E. and Rohr, U. and Schlemmer, G. and Weinbruch, S. and Welz, B. :
Modifiers and coatings in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry--mechanisms of action (A tutorial review).
[Online-Edition: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6THN-4712S9F-1...]
In: Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 57 (12) pp. 1835-1853.
[Article] , (2002)

Official URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6THN-4712S9F-1...

Abstract

A multitude of different and often contradictory mechanisms for the effects of modifiers and coatings have been proposed. Many of these proposals lack sufficient experimental evidence. Therefore, a series of statements based on our own investigations is given as [`]facts'. Another series of statements is made as [`]fictions' related to erroneous proposals on the functioning of modifiers and coatings in the pertinent literature. Two basic concepts are developed for the sequence of processes leading to analyte stabilization for the two most important groups of modifiers: refractory carbide forming elements of the IVa-VIa groups of the periodic system on the one hand and Pt-group metals on the other hand. These concepts are based on the main reactions of graphite with elements and compounds: carbide formation and intercalation. Most important experimental results leading to this understanding are described: Penetration measurements for modifiers and analytes indicated the subsurface zone down to approximately 10 [mu]m as the essential place for graphite-analyte-modifier interactions. The reason for this phenomenon is an open porosity of the pyrocarbon coating of 5-10% (v/v) into which liquids penetrate upon sample application. This also indicates that modifiers are best applied by impregnation or electrolysis whereas dense coatings are not advantageous. It is also shown that graphite tube assemblies are dynamic systems with a limited lifetime and carbon losses are an essential feature of tube corrosion. Most frequently found erroneous statements are discussed: (a) Particles on the tube surface are responsible for analyte stabilization and retention during pyrolysis. (b) Analyte stabilization is taking place by formation of intermetallic compounds or thermally stable alloys. (c) Experiments are performed with unrealistic concentrations of analytes and/or modifiers. (d) Dense coatings are advantageous. Finally, a functional schedule is given for the three steps of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS): sample application and drying; pyrolysis; atomization. Contrary to the vast amount of literature on this topic it tried to provide the analyst working with GFAAS and in an increasing number working with Solid Sampling-GFAAS with a set of most important statements. This might spare the experimentalist a lot of useless optimization procedures but should lead him to a basic understanding of the complex phenomena taking place in his instrument and during his analytical work.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2002
Creators: Ortner, H. M. and Bulska, E. and Rohr, U. and Schlemmer, G. and Weinbruch, S. and Welz, B.
Title: Modifiers and coatings in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry--mechanisms of action (A tutorial review)
Language: English
Abstract:

A multitude of different and often contradictory mechanisms for the effects of modifiers and coatings have been proposed. Many of these proposals lack sufficient experimental evidence. Therefore, a series of statements based on our own investigations is given as [`]facts'. Another series of statements is made as [`]fictions' related to erroneous proposals on the functioning of modifiers and coatings in the pertinent literature. Two basic concepts are developed for the sequence of processes leading to analyte stabilization for the two most important groups of modifiers: refractory carbide forming elements of the IVa-VIa groups of the periodic system on the one hand and Pt-group metals on the other hand. These concepts are based on the main reactions of graphite with elements and compounds: carbide formation and intercalation. Most important experimental results leading to this understanding are described: Penetration measurements for modifiers and analytes indicated the subsurface zone down to approximately 10 [mu]m as the essential place for graphite-analyte-modifier interactions. The reason for this phenomenon is an open porosity of the pyrocarbon coating of 5-10% (v/v) into which liquids penetrate upon sample application. This also indicates that modifiers are best applied by impregnation or electrolysis whereas dense coatings are not advantageous. It is also shown that graphite tube assemblies are dynamic systems with a limited lifetime and carbon losses are an essential feature of tube corrosion. Most frequently found erroneous statements are discussed: (a) Particles on the tube surface are responsible for analyte stabilization and retention during pyrolysis. (b) Analyte stabilization is taking place by formation of intermetallic compounds or thermally stable alloys. (c) Experiments are performed with unrealistic concentrations of analytes and/or modifiers. (d) Dense coatings are advantageous. Finally, a functional schedule is given for the three steps of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS): sample application and drying; pyrolysis; atomization. Contrary to the vast amount of literature on this topic it tried to provide the analyst working with GFAAS and in an increasing number working with Solid Sampling-GFAAS with a set of most important statements. This might spare the experimentalist a lot of useless optimization procedures but should lead him to a basic understanding of the complex phenomena taking place in his instrument and during his analytical work.

Journal or Publication Title: Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy
Volume: 57
Number: 12
Divisions: 11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Earth Science > Environmental Mineralogy
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Material Analytics
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Earth Science
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences
Date Deposited: 03 Feb 2010 13:27
Official URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6THN-4712S9F-1...
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