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γH2AX foci analysis for monitoring DNA double-strand break repair: Strengths, limitations and optimization

Löbrich, Markus ; Shibata, Atsushi ; Beucher, Andrea ; Fisher, Anna ; Ensminger, Michael ; Goodarzi, Aaron A. ; Barton, Olivia ; Jeggo, Penny A. (2021):
γH2AX foci analysis for monitoring DNA double-strand break repair: Strengths, limitations and optimization. (Publisher's Version)
In: Cell Cycle, 9 (4), pp. 662-669. Taylor and Francis Group, ISSN 1538-4101, e-ISSN 1551-4005,
DOI: 10.26083/tuprints-00019060,
[Article]

Abstract

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent an important radiation-induced lesion and impaired DSB repair provides the best available correlation with radiosensitivity. Physical techniques for monitoring DSB repair require high, non-physiological doses and cannot reliably detect subtle defects. One outcome from extensive research into the DNA damage response is the observation that H2AX, a variant form of the histone H2A, undergoes extensive phosphorylation at the DSB, creating γH2AX foci that can be visualised by immunofluorescence. There is a close correlation between γH2AX foci and DSB numbers and between the rate of foci loss and DSB repair, providing a sensitive assay to monitor DSB repair in individual cells using physiological doses. However, γH2AX formation can occur at single-stranded DNA regions which arise during replication or repair and thus does not solely correlate with DSB formation. Here, we present and discuss evidence that following exposure to ionising radiation, γH2AX foci analysis can provide a sensitive monitor of DSB formation and repair and describe techniques to optimise the analysis. We discuss the limitations and benefits of the technique, enabling the procedure to be optimally exploited but not misused.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2021
Creators: Löbrich, Markus ; Shibata, Atsushi ; Beucher, Andrea ; Fisher, Anna ; Ensminger, Michael ; Goodarzi, Aaron A. ; Barton, Olivia ; Jeggo, Penny A.
Origin: Secondary publication service
Status: Publisher's Version
Title: γH2AX foci analysis for monitoring DNA double-strand break repair: Strengths, limitations and optimization
Language: English
Abstract:

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent an important radiation-induced lesion and impaired DSB repair provides the best available correlation with radiosensitivity. Physical techniques for monitoring DSB repair require high, non-physiological doses and cannot reliably detect subtle defects. One outcome from extensive research into the DNA damage response is the observation that H2AX, a variant form of the histone H2A, undergoes extensive phosphorylation at the DSB, creating γH2AX foci that can be visualised by immunofluorescence. There is a close correlation between γH2AX foci and DSB numbers and between the rate of foci loss and DSB repair, providing a sensitive assay to monitor DSB repair in individual cells using physiological doses. However, γH2AX formation can occur at single-stranded DNA regions which arise during replication or repair and thus does not solely correlate with DSB formation. Here, we present and discuss evidence that following exposure to ionising radiation, γH2AX foci analysis can provide a sensitive monitor of DSB formation and repair and describe techniques to optimise the analysis. We discuss the limitations and benefits of the technique, enabling the procedure to be optimally exploited but not misused.

Journal or Publication Title: Cell Cycle
Journal volume: 9
Number: 4
Publisher: Taylor and Francis Group
Divisions: 10 Department of Biology
10 Department of Biology > Radiation Biology and DNA Repair
Date Deposited: 10 Sep 2021 12:06
DOI: 10.26083/tuprints-00019060
Official URL: https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/19060
URN: urn:nbn:de:tuda-tuprints-190607
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