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Temperature and Lithium Concentration Gradient Caused Inhomogeneous Plating in Large-format Lithium-ion Cells

Storch, Mathias ; Fath, Johannes Philipp ; Siegmann, Johannes ; Vrankovic, Dragoljub ; Krupp, Carsten ; Spier, Bernd ; Riedel, Ralf (2021):
Temperature and Lithium Concentration Gradient Caused Inhomogeneous Plating in Large-format Lithium-ion Cells.
In: Journal of Energy Storage, 41, p. 102887. Elsevier, ISSN 2352-152X,
DOI: 10.1016/j.est.2021.102887,
[Article]

Abstract

Although lithium plating is one of the most-investigated degradation mechanisms occurring in lithium-ion batteries, many degradation studies still view inhomogeneous lithium plating as an artifact. It is often caused by mechanical stress, gas formation and encapsulation, or temperature and current gradients on account of the cell size. In this work, large-format lithium-ion cells are cycled at conditions harmless on the material level, but cause heavy lithium plating in the center of the commercial cell. Failure analysis requires visual inspection and further material evaluation to identify the reason for malfunction. A combination of temperature gradient and current density gradient evoke a lithium concentration gradient, which equalizes by a lateral lithium-ion flow. The inhomogeneous distribution of lithium again distorts the operating potential window, resulting in local violation of the critical lithium plating condition. Thus, our study shows that inhomogeneity in a large-format lithium-ion cell has to be taken into account when designing the operating window. In addition, accelerated testing of large-format lithium-ion cells raises degradation mechanisms, which do not appear during regular usage.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2021
Creators: Storch, Mathias ; Fath, Johannes Philipp ; Siegmann, Johannes ; Vrankovic, Dragoljub ; Krupp, Carsten ; Spier, Bernd ; Riedel, Ralf
Title: Temperature and Lithium Concentration Gradient Caused Inhomogeneous Plating in Large-format Lithium-ion Cells
Language: English
Abstract:

Although lithium plating is one of the most-investigated degradation mechanisms occurring in lithium-ion batteries, many degradation studies still view inhomogeneous lithium plating as an artifact. It is often caused by mechanical stress, gas formation and encapsulation, or temperature and current gradients on account of the cell size. In this work, large-format lithium-ion cells are cycled at conditions harmless on the material level, but cause heavy lithium plating in the center of the commercial cell. Failure analysis requires visual inspection and further material evaluation to identify the reason for malfunction. A combination of temperature gradient and current density gradient evoke a lithium concentration gradient, which equalizes by a lateral lithium-ion flow. The inhomogeneous distribution of lithium again distorts the operating potential window, resulting in local violation of the critical lithium plating condition. Thus, our study shows that inhomogeneity in a large-format lithium-ion cell has to be taken into account when designing the operating window. In addition, accelerated testing of large-format lithium-ion cells raises degradation mechanisms, which do not appear during regular usage.

Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Energy Storage
Journal volume: 41
Publisher: Elsevier
Uncontrolled Keywords: Lithium-ion battery, Lithium plating, Post-mortem analysis, Inhomogeneous degradation, Lithium-ion flow, Differential voltage analysis
Divisions: 11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Dispersive Solids
Date Deposited: 27 Jul 2021 05:31
DOI: 10.1016/j.est.2021.102887
Additional Information:

Daimler AG, Germany, Deutsche Accumotive GmbH & Co. KG, Germany, BatterieIngenieure GmbH, Aachen

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