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Microwave Induced Electroporation of Adherent Mammalian Cells at 18 GHz

Schmidt, Sönke and Schubler, Martin and Hessinger, Carolin and Schuster, Christian and Bertulat, Bianca and Kithil, Marina and Cardoso, M. Cristina and Jakoby, Rolf (2019):
Microwave Induced Electroporation of Adherent Mammalian Cells at 18 GHz.
In: IEEE Access, 7IEEE, pp. 78698-78705, ISSN 2169-3536,
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2923073,
[Online-Edition: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2923073],
[Article]

Abstract

This paper discusses microwave-induced electroporation as a promising alternative to conventional transfection methods. Adherent C2C12 mouse cells are successfully transfected with a 5TAMRA redlabeled peptide by using a recently developed planar microwave electroporation tool. It allows to monitor the uptake kinetics with live-cell confocal microscopy and is suitable to culture, manipulate, and observe the adherent cells over several days. Viability tests with the Calcein blue AM proof the vitality of the treated cells after 72 h. The question of whether the observed effects are temperature or field induced is tackled. For this reason, comprehensive coupled full-wave electromagnetic-thermal simulations are aligned with temperature measurements. The temperature at the position of the cells does not exceed 34 °C for an input power of 24 dBm. The corresponding electric field strength is evaluated at the position of the cells. A value of 150 V/cm is not exceeded, which is at least a factor of 10 below the field strength of the conventional electroporation. Consequently, almost no cell mortality does occur during the treatment. Comparative thermal tests without a microwave field but with a successively increased temperature up to 42 °C show no uptake. In contrast, the successful uptake follows the pattern of the microwave field although the temperature distribution is homogeneous. We rate this as evidence that the uptake is induced by the high-frequency electromagnetic field rather than the temperature.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2019
Creators: Schmidt, Sönke and Schubler, Martin and Hessinger, Carolin and Schuster, Christian and Bertulat, Bianca and Kithil, Marina and Cardoso, M. Cristina and Jakoby, Rolf
Title: Microwave Induced Electroporation of Adherent Mammalian Cells at 18 GHz
Language: English
Abstract:

This paper discusses microwave-induced electroporation as a promising alternative to conventional transfection methods. Adherent C2C12 mouse cells are successfully transfected with a 5TAMRA redlabeled peptide by using a recently developed planar microwave electroporation tool. It allows to monitor the uptake kinetics with live-cell confocal microscopy and is suitable to culture, manipulate, and observe the adherent cells over several days. Viability tests with the Calcein blue AM proof the vitality of the treated cells after 72 h. The question of whether the observed effects are temperature or field induced is tackled. For this reason, comprehensive coupled full-wave electromagnetic-thermal simulations are aligned with temperature measurements. The temperature at the position of the cells does not exceed 34 °C for an input power of 24 dBm. The corresponding electric field strength is evaluated at the position of the cells. A value of 150 V/cm is not exceeded, which is at least a factor of 10 below the field strength of the conventional electroporation. Consequently, almost no cell mortality does occur during the treatment. Comparative thermal tests without a microwave field but with a successively increased temperature up to 42 °C show no uptake. In contrast, the successful uptake follows the pattern of the microwave field although the temperature distribution is homogeneous. We rate this as evidence that the uptake is induced by the high-frequency electromagnetic field rather than the temperature.

Journal or Publication Title: IEEE Access
Volume: 7
Publisher: IEEE
Divisions: 10 Department of Biology
10 Department of Biology > Cell Biology and Epigenetics
18 Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology
18 Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology > Institute for Microwave Engineering and Photonics
Date Deposited: 18 Jul 2019 06:16
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2923073
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2923073
URN: urn:nbn:de:tuda-tuprints-92966
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