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Enabling nanoscale flexoelectricity at extreme temperature by tuning cation diffusion

Molina-Luna, Leopoldo and Wang, Shuai and Pivak, Y. and Zintler, Alexander and Perez-Garza, Hector H. and Spruit, Ronald G. and Xu, Qiang and Yi, Min and Xu, Bai-Xiang and Acosta, Matias (2018):
Enabling nanoscale flexoelectricity at extreme temperature by tuning cation diffusion.
In: Nature communications, Nature, p. 4445, 9, ISSN 2041-1723,
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-06959-8,
[Article]

Abstract

Any dielectric material under a strain gradient presents flexoelectricity. Here, we synthesized 0.75 sodium bismuth titanate −0.25 strontium titanate (NBT-25ST) core–shell nanoparticles via a solid-state chemical reaction directly inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and observed domain-like nanoregions (DLNRs) up to an extreme temperature of 800 °C. We attribute this abnormal phenomenon to a chemically induced lattice strain gradient present in the core–shell nanoparticle. The strain gradient was generated by controlling the diffusion of strontium cations. By combining electrical biasing and temperature-dependent in situ TEM with phase field simulations, we analyzed the resulting strain gradient and local polarization distribution within a single nanoparticle. The analysis confirms that a local symmetry breaking, occurring due to a strain gradient (i.e. flexoelectricity), accounts for switchable polarization beyond the conventional temperature range of existing polar materials. We demonstrate that polar nanomaterials can be obtained through flexoelectricity at extreme temperature by tuning the cation diffusion.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2018
Creators: Molina-Luna, Leopoldo and Wang, Shuai and Pivak, Y. and Zintler, Alexander and Perez-Garza, Hector H. and Spruit, Ronald G. and Xu, Qiang and Yi, Min and Xu, Bai-Xiang and Acosta, Matias
Title: Enabling nanoscale flexoelectricity at extreme temperature by tuning cation diffusion
Language: English
Abstract:

Any dielectric material under a strain gradient presents flexoelectricity. Here, we synthesized 0.75 sodium bismuth titanate −0.25 strontium titanate (NBT-25ST) core–shell nanoparticles via a solid-state chemical reaction directly inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and observed domain-like nanoregions (DLNRs) up to an extreme temperature of 800 °C. We attribute this abnormal phenomenon to a chemically induced lattice strain gradient present in the core–shell nanoparticle. The strain gradient was generated by controlling the diffusion of strontium cations. By combining electrical biasing and temperature-dependent in situ TEM with phase field simulations, we analyzed the resulting strain gradient and local polarization distribution within a single nanoparticle. The analysis confirms that a local symmetry breaking, occurring due to a strain gradient (i.e. flexoelectricity), accounts for switchable polarization beyond the conventional temperature range of existing polar materials. We demonstrate that polar nanomaterials can be obtained through flexoelectricity at extreme temperature by tuning the cation diffusion.

Journal or Publication Title: Nature communications
Volume: 9
Publisher: Nature
Divisions: 11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Earth Science
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Advanced Electron Microscopy (aem)
11 Department of Materials and Earth Sciences > Material Science > Mechanics of functional Materials
Date Deposited: 26 Nov 2018 06:02
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-06959-8
Funders: L.M.-L. acknowledges financial support from the European Union Seventh Framework Program under Grant Agreement 312483/ESTEEM2 (Integrated Infrastructure Initiative–I3) and the European Research Council "Horizon 2020" Program under Grant No. 805359—F—FOXON, L.M.-L. and A.Z. acknowledge funding from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under research grant MO 3010/3-1., The JEOL JEM-ARM-F transmission electron microscope employed for this work was partially funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG/INST163/2951)., S.W. and B.-X.X. acknowledge financial support by the "Excellence Initiative" of the German Federal and State Governments and the Graduate School of Computational Engineering at the Technische Universität Darmstadt., L.M.-L., M.Y. and B.-X.X acknowledge financial support from the Hessen State Ministry of Higher Education, Research and the Arts via LOEWE RESPONSE., M.A. acknowledges support from the Feodor Lynen Research Fellowship Program of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation., Partial financial support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Leibniz Program under RO954/22-1 was received.
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