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Benefits of Multi-Constellation/Multi-Frequency GNSS in a Tightly Coupled GNSS/IMU/Odometry Integration Algorithm

Reuper, Björn and Becker, Matthias and Leinen, Stefan (2018):
Benefits of Multi-Constellation/Multi-Frequency GNSS in a Tightly Coupled GNSS/IMU/Odometry Integration Algorithm.
18, In: Sensors, (9), MDPI, ISSN 1424-8220, DOI: 10.3390/s18093052,
[Online-Edition: https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093052],
[Article]

Abstract

Localization algorithms based on global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) play an important role in automotive positioning. Due to the advent of autonomously driving cars, their importance is expected to grow even further in the next years. Simultaneously, the performance requirements for these localization algorithms will increase because they are no longer used exclusively for navigation, but also for control of the vehicle’s movement. These requirements cannot be met with GNSS alone. Instead, algorithms for sensor data fusion are needed. While the combination of GNSS receivers with inertial measurements units (IMUs) is a common approach, it is traditionally executed in a single-frequency/single-constellation architecture, usually with the Global Positioning System’s (GPS) L1 C/A signal. With the advent of new GNSS constellations and civil signals on multiple frequencies, GNSS/IMU integration algorithm performance can be improved by utilizing these new data sources. To achieve this, we upgraded a tightly coupled GNSS/IMU integration algorithm to process measurements from GPS (L1 C/A, L2C, L5) and Galileo (E1, E5a, E5b). After investigating various combination strategies, we chose to preferably work with ionosphere-free combinations of L5-L1 C/A and E5a-E1 pseudo-ranges. L2C-L1 C/A and E5b-E1 combinations as well as single-frequency pseudo-ranges on L1 and E1 serve as backup when no L5/E5a measurements are available. To be able to process these six types of pseudo-range observations simultaneously, the differential code biases (DCBs) of the employed receiver need to be calibrated. Time-differenced carrier-phase measurements on L1 and E1 provide the algorithm with pseudo-range-rate observations. To provide additional aiding, information about the vehicle’s velocity obtained by an odometry model fed with angular velocities from all four wheels as well as the steering wheel angle is incorporated into the algorithm. To evaluate the performance improvement provided by these new data sources, two sets of measurement data are collected and the resulting navigation solutions are compared to a higher-grade reference system, consisting of a geodetic GNSS receiver for real-time kinematic positioning (RTK) and a navigation grade IMU. The multi-frequency/multi-constellation algorithm with odometry aiding achieves a 3-D root mean square (RMS) position error of 3.6 m/2.1m in these data sets, compared to 5.2m/2.9m for the single-frequency GPS algorithm without odometry aiding. Odometry is most beneficial to positioning accuracy when GNSS measurement quality is poor. This is demonstrated in data set 1, resulting in a reduction of the horizontal position error’s 95% quantile from 6.2m without odometry aiding to 4.2m with odometry aiding.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2018
Creators: Reuper, Björn and Becker, Matthias and Leinen, Stefan
Title: Benefits of Multi-Constellation/Multi-Frequency GNSS in a Tightly Coupled GNSS/IMU/Odometry Integration Algorithm
Language: English
Abstract:

Localization algorithms based on global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) play an important role in automotive positioning. Due to the advent of autonomously driving cars, their importance is expected to grow even further in the next years. Simultaneously, the performance requirements for these localization algorithms will increase because they are no longer used exclusively for navigation, but also for control of the vehicle’s movement. These requirements cannot be met with GNSS alone. Instead, algorithms for sensor data fusion are needed. While the combination of GNSS receivers with inertial measurements units (IMUs) is a common approach, it is traditionally executed in a single-frequency/single-constellation architecture, usually with the Global Positioning System’s (GPS) L1 C/A signal. With the advent of new GNSS constellations and civil signals on multiple frequencies, GNSS/IMU integration algorithm performance can be improved by utilizing these new data sources. To achieve this, we upgraded a tightly coupled GNSS/IMU integration algorithm to process measurements from GPS (L1 C/A, L2C, L5) and Galileo (E1, E5a, E5b). After investigating various combination strategies, we chose to preferably work with ionosphere-free combinations of L5-L1 C/A and E5a-E1 pseudo-ranges. L2C-L1 C/A and E5b-E1 combinations as well as single-frequency pseudo-ranges on L1 and E1 serve as backup when no L5/E5a measurements are available. To be able to process these six types of pseudo-range observations simultaneously, the differential code biases (DCBs) of the employed receiver need to be calibrated. Time-differenced carrier-phase measurements on L1 and E1 provide the algorithm with pseudo-range-rate observations. To provide additional aiding, information about the vehicle’s velocity obtained by an odometry model fed with angular velocities from all four wheels as well as the steering wheel angle is incorporated into the algorithm. To evaluate the performance improvement provided by these new data sources, two sets of measurement data are collected and the resulting navigation solutions are compared to a higher-grade reference system, consisting of a geodetic GNSS receiver for real-time kinematic positioning (RTK) and a navigation grade IMU. The multi-frequency/multi-constellation algorithm with odometry aiding achieves a 3-D root mean square (RMS) position error of 3.6 m/2.1m in these data sets, compared to 5.2m/2.9m for the single-frequency GPS algorithm without odometry aiding. Odometry is most beneficial to positioning accuracy when GNSS measurement quality is poor. This is demonstrated in data set 1, resulting in a reduction of the horizontal position error’s 95% quantile from 6.2m without odometry aiding to 4.2m with odometry aiding.

Journal or Publication Title: Sensors
Volume: 18
Number: 9
Publisher: MDPI
Divisions: 13 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Sciences
13 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Sciences > Institute of Geodesy
13 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Sciences > Institute of Geodesy > Physical and Satellite Geodesy
16 Department of Mechanical Engineering
16 Department of Mechanical Engineering > Institute of Automotive Engineering (FZD)
Date Deposited: 16 Sep 2018 19:55
DOI: 10.3390/s18093052
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093052
URN: urn:nbn:de:tuda-tuprints-77921
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