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Intrinsic Run-Time Row Hammer PUFs: Leveraging the Row Hammer Effect for Run-Time Cryptography and Improved Security

Anagnostopoulos, Nikolaos Athanasios and Arul, Tolga and Fan, Yufan and Hatzfeld, Christian and Schaller, André and Xiong, Wenjie and Jain, Manishkumar and Saleem, Umair and Lotichius, Jan and Gabmeyer, Sebastian and Szefer, Jakub and Katzenbeisser, Stefan (2018):
Intrinsic Run-Time Row Hammer PUFs: Leveraging the Row Hammer Effect for Run-Time Cryptography and Improved Security.
In: Cryptography, MDPI, 2, (3), ISSN 2410-387X,
DOI: 10.3390/cryptography2030013,
[Online-Edition: http://www.mdpi.com/2410-387X/2/3/13/htm],
[Article]

Abstract

Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) based on the retention times of the cells of a Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) can be utilised for the implementation of cost-efficient and lightweight cryptographic protocols. However, as recent work has demonstrated, the times needed in order to generate their responses may prohibit their widespread usage. To address this issue, the Row Hammer PUF has been proposed by Schaller et al., which leverages the row hammer effect in DRAM modules to reduce the retention times of their cells and, therefore, significantly speed up the generation times for the responses of PUFs based on these retention times. In this work, we extend the work of Schaller et al. by presenting a run-time accessible implementation of this PUF and by further reducing the time required for the generation of its responses. Additionally, we also provide a more thorough investigation of the effects of temperature variations on the Row Hammer PUF and briefly discuss potential statistical relationships between the cells used to implement it. As our results prove, the Row Hammer PUF could potentially provide an adequate level of security for Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) devices, if its dependency on temperature is mitigated, and, may therefore, be commercially adopted in the near future.

Item Type: Article
Erschienen: 2018
Creators: Anagnostopoulos, Nikolaos Athanasios and Arul, Tolga and Fan, Yufan and Hatzfeld, Christian and Schaller, André and Xiong, Wenjie and Jain, Manishkumar and Saleem, Umair and Lotichius, Jan and Gabmeyer, Sebastian and Szefer, Jakub and Katzenbeisser, Stefan
Title: Intrinsic Run-Time Row Hammer PUFs: Leveraging the Row Hammer Effect for Run-Time Cryptography and Improved Security
Language: English
Abstract:

Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) based on the retention times of the cells of a Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) can be utilised for the implementation of cost-efficient and lightweight cryptographic protocols. However, as recent work has demonstrated, the times needed in order to generate their responses may prohibit their widespread usage. To address this issue, the Row Hammer PUF has been proposed by Schaller et al., which leverages the row hammer effect in DRAM modules to reduce the retention times of their cells and, therefore, significantly speed up the generation times for the responses of PUFs based on these retention times. In this work, we extend the work of Schaller et al. by presenting a run-time accessible implementation of this PUF and by further reducing the time required for the generation of its responses. Additionally, we also provide a more thorough investigation of the effects of temperature variations on the Row Hammer PUF and briefly discuss potential statistical relationships between the cells used to implement it. As our results prove, the Row Hammer PUF could potentially provide an adequate level of security for Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) devices, if its dependency on temperature is mitigated, and, may therefore, be commercially adopted in the near future.

Journal or Publication Title: Cryptography
Volume: 2
Number: 3
Publisher: MDPI
Uncontrolled Keywords: row hammer; dynamic random access memory (DRAM); physical unclonable function (PUF); run-time accessible; security primitive; Primitives; P3
Divisions: 20 Department of Computer Science
20 Department of Computer Science > Security Engineering
DFG-Collaborative Research Centres (incl. Transregio)
DFG-Collaborative Research Centres (incl. Transregio) > Collaborative Research Centres
Profile Areas
Profile Areas > Cybersecurity (CYSEC)
DFG-Collaborative Research Centres (incl. Transregio) > Collaborative Research Centres > CRC 1119: CROSSING – Cryptography-Based Security Solutions: Enabling Trust in New and Next Generation Computing Environments
Date Deposited: 07 Aug 2018 13:33
DOI: 10.3390/cryptography2030013
Official URL: http://www.mdpi.com/2410-387X/2/3/13/htm
Related URLs:
Projects: Project P3 within the DFG CRC 1119 CROSSING, DAAD Grant no. 57210638, NSF Grant no. 1651945
Funders: DFG, DAAD, US NSF
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